French Department

Professors: Elisabeth Cardonne-Arlyck, Cynthia B. Kerr, Christine Reno; Associate Professors: Mark Andrews, Patricia Célérier (Chair), Kathleen Hart; Assistant Professor: Susan Hiner; Visiting Assistant Professor: Mansouria Geist.

All courses are conducted in French except French 189 and 248.

Requirements for Concentration: 11 units excluding French 248, and including at least 3 units at the 300-level. One of these three seminars is expected to be French 332, 348, 355 or 346. No courses in French elected after the declaration of the major may be taken NRO.

Teaching Certification: Students who wish to obtain Secondary Certification must complete the program of study outlined by the education department.

Advisers: The department.

Study Abroad: Vassar College and Wesleyan University sponsor jointly a program of study in Paris. Majors in French are expected to participate in this program for one or two semesters during their junior year. Students electing a correlate sequence in French are also encouraged to participate in the program. Students concentrating in other fields for whom study in Paris is advisable are accepted, within the regulations of their respective departments and the Office of the Dean of Studies. Courses offered in the Paris program are included below. Students of French who are unable to study abroad during the academic year are strongly encouraged to attend the summer program at Middlebury College French School, or other summer programs in France or French-speaking countries.

Correlate Sequence in French: Students majoring in other programs may complement their study by electing a correlate sequence in French. Course selection should be made in consultation with the chair or other advisers in the department.

Requirements: 6 units excluding French 248, at least 5 of which must be taken above the 100-level. At least 1 but preferably 2 units must be taken at the 300-level. No French courses elected after declaration of the correlate sequence may be taken NRO.

Study Away and summer courses may be substituted in the correlate sequence, with departmental approval.

I. Introductory

105a-106b. Elementary French (1)

Fundamentals of the language. Students learn to understand spoken French, to express simple ideas both orally and in writing, and to read French of average difficulty. The department.

Not open to students who have previously studied French.

Three 50-minute class periods, 2 hours of drill and oral practice.

189a. Writing Modern Life (1)

Inspired by the rapidly changing urban space of mid-nineteenth-century Paris, French poet Charles Baudelaire defined “modernité” as “the ephemeral, the fugitive, the contingent, the half of art whose other half is the eternal, the immutable.” French concepts of the modern engage a broad range of themes, from social and political change, industrialization, commercialization and urbanization to the status of women and challenges to aesthetic forms. This course considers the French “tradition” of modernity through readings of literary texts in their historical, social and artistic contexts. We read four classic nineteenth-century French novels: Stendhal’s The Red and the Black, Balzac’s Père Goriot, Flaubert’s Madame Bovary, and Zola’s The Ladies’ Paradise. Works by Baudelaire complement our readings of these novels as we examine the writing of modern life and explore the figure of the modern hero or heroine, who is characterized by his or her negotiations of the spaces (both literal and figurative) of modernity. The course is taught in English. Ms. Hiner.

Open only to freshmen.

II. Intermediate

205a and b. Intermediate French I (1)

Fast-paced review of the main points of basic grammar. Includes practice in speaking, listening, reading, and writing, through written exercises, short texts and compositions, and work with the audiovisual resources of the language laboratory. The department.

Prerequisite: French 105-106 or two years of French in high school.

Three 50-minute or two 75-minute periods; one hour of scheduled oral practice.

206a and b. Intermediate French II (1)

Expanded grammar study with an emphasis on more complex linguistic structures such as relative pronouns and the subjunctive. Reading, writing, and speaking skills are developed through discussion of cultural and literary texts and use of audiovisual material. The course prepares students linguistically for cultural and literary study at the intermediate level. The department.

Prerequisite: French 205 or three years of French in high school. French 105-106 by permission of instructor.

Three 50-minute or two 75-minute periods; one hour of scheduled oral practice.

212a and b. Reading French Literature and Film (1)

Introduction to the analysis of literature and film and to basic modes of interpretation through the study and discussion of short texts (poems, short stories, films, plays, essays). The department.

Prerequisite: French 206 or four years of French in high school.

213a and b. France Through Her Media (1)

An introductory study of France through current newspapers, magazines, television programs, films and the web. A strong emphasis is placed on the expansion of vocabulary and on oral and written expression. Some grammar review. The department.

Prerequisite: French 206 or four years of French in high school.

228a. Tellers and Tales (1)

Study of short stories taken from several periods of French literature. Introduction to the study of narrative forms and critical writing. Mr. Andrews.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

230a. Medieval and Early Modern Times (1)

Studies in French literature, history, and culture from the Medieval to the Classical period.

Topic for 2005/06: The Politics of Seduction. Introduction to the literature and culture of France, with a special focus on woman as subject and object of desire. Readings include the love poetry of Ronsard and Labé, La Princesse de Clèves, a story of illicit passion by France’s first prominent woman novelist, and classical theater’s masterpieces of love and deception authored by Corneille, Racine, and Molière. The course concludes with Diderot’s celebrated narrative, La Religieuse, about a young woman’s struggle for emancipation in pre-revolutionary France. Ms. Kerr.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

231b. Revolutionary France and Its Legacies (1)

Studies in French literature, history, and culture in relation to the French Revolution during the Enlightenment and the Romantic period.

Topic for 2005/06: Power Plays: Servants and Their Masters in an Age of Revolution. France underwent a period of massive transition on both the domestic and political scales in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A world of rigid hierarchy was becoming destabilized, though not entirely dismantled. This course considers and questions the nature of power by focusing on the representation of master/servant relationships, slavery, and patriarchy in the theater and prose of the Enlightenment and Romantic period. What is the power of the master? What is the power of the servant? On whose side are the writers who represent masters and servants? While pursuing these questions, we also explore why the celebration of new democratic ideals paradoxically went hand in hand with the oppression of women, and increased French participation in the slave trade. Authors include Beaumarchais, Claire de Duras, Olympe de Gouges, Marivaux, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Sand. Ms. Hart.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

[232. The Modern Age] (1)

The course explores literary, artistic, social, or political manifestations of modern French society and its relation to the French-speaking world from the Napoleonic Empire to the present.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

Not offered in 2005/06.

235b. Contemporary France (1)

This course offers a study of French society as it has been shaped by the major historical and cultural events since WWII. The main themes include Vichy France, de Gaulle’s regime, the wars of French decolonization, the Mitterrand years, immigration, and the religious issues facing France today. The course draws on a variety of texts and documents including articles from the press and movies. Ms. Geist.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

240a. Study of French Grammar (1)

In-depth study of major aspects of French grammar. Grammar exercises, compositions, and oral practice. Mr. Andrews.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

241b. Composition and Conversation (1)

A course designed to improve written and oral expression, through the study and practice of various forms of writing, and the discussion of readings on contemporary issues. The department.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

[242. Studies in Genre I] (1)

Study of narrative and prose forms including the novel, autobiography, and the essay.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

Not offered in 2005/06.

[243. Studies in Genre II] (1)

Study of dramatic and lyric forms including theater, poetry, and song.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

Not offered in 2005/06.

244a. French National Cinema (1)

Since WWI, French cinema has defined itself as national: not only as an industry requiring protection, but as a cultural institution bearing French identity. Through the study of individual films ranging from the silent era to the present, we examine the interaction between the French and their cinema in terms of historical circumstances, economic constraints, aesthetic ambitions, and self-representation. Ms. Cardonne-Arlyck.

Students in this course attend one weekly 75-minute class in English with students in 248a, but do some of the readings in French, attend a different 75-minute discussion period in French, and write papers in French.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

Two 75-minute periods plus evening film screenings.

246b. French-Speaking Cultures and Literatures of Africa and the (1)


Topic for 2005-06: The Words behind the Words: Intertextual Play in Francophone African Literature. Francophone African Literature is characterized by a constant interplay between cultures, languages, and genres. Many texts reference other texts. Through their incorporation of different voices, texts, and traditions, these narratives both reveal and expand their aesthetic borders, and bring new meaning to the concept of intertextuality. In this course, we examine the interplay of the novel with oral literature (the Malinke epic) in Ahmadou Kourouma’s Les Soleils des Indépendances, with jazz in Emmanuel Dongala’s short story “A Love Supreme,” with the detective novel in Henri Lopès’ Dossier Classé, and with Latin American literature in Sami Tchak’s Hermina. We discuss the meaning of literary “borrowing,” and the controversies surrounding the publication of Yambo Ouologuem’s Le Devoir de Violence and Calixthe Beyala’s Le Petit Prince de Belleville. Lastly, we read Bessora’s Les Taches d’Encre and assess the growing dialogue between post-colonial theory and Francophone African literary production. Ms. Célérier.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

248a. French National Cinema (1)

Since WWI, French cinema has defined itself as national: not only as an industry requiring protection, but as a cultural institution bearing French identity. Through the study of individual films ranging from the silent era to the present, we examine the interaction between the French and their cinema in terms of historical circumstances, economic constraints, aesthetic ambitions, and self-representation. Ms. Cardonne-Arlyck.

Readings and discussions in English. May not be counted towards the French major or correlate sequence.

Declared or prospective French majors, correlates, and students wishing to do the work in French, see French 244a.

Prerequisite: 4 units in the humanities or social sciences, or by permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods plus evening film screenings.

298a or b. Independent Work (1⁄2 or 1)

One unit of credit given only in exceptional cases and by permission of the chair. The department.

III. Advanced

Prerequisite for all advanced courses: 1 unit of 200-level work above French 235, or Study Abroad in France or in a French-speaking country, or by permission.

300a. Senior Thesis (1)

Open only to majors. The department.

Permission required.

301a or b. Senior Translation (1⁄2 or 1)

Open only to majors. One unit of credit given in exceptional cases only and by permission of the Chair. The department.

332b. Literature and Society in Pre-Revolutionary France (1)

Topic for 2005/06: Crime and Punishment in Early Modem France. What was considered criminal behavior under French law in different historical periods from the Middle Ages to the Revolution of 1789? Who determined the guilt or innocence of the accused? How were trials conducted? What kinds of punishments were inflicted on the accused and to what end? This seminar on crime and violence, gossip, prejudice, and the struggle for civil rights examines the most famous courtroom battles and “causes célèbres” from Joan of Arc to Marie-Antoinette. It provides a look into the lives of heretics and rebels, enemies of the state, and hapless individuals caught up in the machinery of government. By reading tales of justice and injustice, students learn about the social and political forces at work in different geographical regions of France until the fall of the Ancien Régime. Historical figures studied include peasants, bourgeois, and aristocrats such as Saint Joan, Fouquet, Molière, Voltaire, Sade, Louis XVI, and Marie Antoinette. Ms. Kerr.

One 2-hour period.

348b. Modernism and its Discontents (1)

Topic for 2005/06: Vice/Virtue. This seminar investigates the construction and representation of gender in nineteenth-century cultural texts that both promote and subvert moral, political and sexual ideologies. The concept of virtue splits along gender lines in post-Revolutionary France. Whereas male virtue involves fulfilling civic duties and participating in public life, female virtue requires modesty, chastity, and selflessness. A bourgeois domestic ideology confines women’s roles to those of family matron or virginal daughter, or alternatively, to asexualized saint, daughter and wife of the church. This nineteenth-century cult of domestic feminine “virtue” is challenged, however, by transgressive feminine practices or identities, and “vices” such as prostitution, adultery, lesbianism, cross-dressing, and androgyny are increasingly represented in a flourishing culture of decadence by the turn of the century. We examine representations of female virtue and vice in novels, plays, physiologies, etiquette guides, fashion journals, saints’ lives, historical works, paintings and caricatures. Readings in cultural criticism and authors such as Chateaubriand, Balzac, Sand, et. al. Ms. Hiner.

One 2-hour period.

355a. Cross-Currents in French Culture (1)

Topic for 2005/06: Coming of Age in Contemporary France. Coming of age narratives relate how a young person negotiates the crucial transition from adolescence to maturity. Since the late eighteenth century, such narratives have appealed to readers seeking psychological support, words of wisdom, and protagonists to imitate. Focusing on films, novels, memoirs, magazines, comic strips, and “self-help” books, the course examines the very enduring narrative forms and conventions according to which individuals often shape and interpret their lives. We consider how various French texts define modem dilemmas, foster solidarity or enmity, offer advice, and propose new models of self. Cultural pluralism, unstable gender roles, AIDS, an “encroaching” U.S. culture, increased threats of terrorism, and European integration, are some of the issues affecting French people’s coming of age process. Authors include Emmanuéle Bernheim, Grégoire Bouillier, Cyril Collard, Anna Gavalda, Michel Houellebecq, and “Leila,” an anonymous woman of Moroccan descent. Required films are Chaos, Oui, mais, Vénus et Fleur. Ms. Hart.

One 2‑hour period.

[366b. Francophone Literature and Cultures] (1)

One 2-hour period.

Not offered in 2005/06.

370a. Stylistics and Translation (1)

A study of different modes of writing and of the major problems encountered when translating from English to French, and vice versa. Practice with a broad range of both literary and nonliterary texts. The department.

380a. Special Seminar: Auteurs Redux in Contemporary French Cinema (1)

In the 1990s, critics hailed the arrival of new auteurs in French cinema. In this course, we study different trends gathered under this umbrella, as well as some of the filmmakers who may have helped shape these trends (Pialat, Rivette, Scorcese, Ozu): stark realism in the films of the Dardenne brothers and Bruno Dumont; an ironic reworking of “French” propensity towards witty dialogue and psychological complexity by Amaud Desplechin, Danièle Dubroux and Malik Chibane; a privileging of mood and form by Pascale Ferran and Claire Denis; a redefining of the “heritage” film by Patricia Mazuy and Olivier Assayas. Diverse as they may be, their films focus on characters at the edge of society, family life, or sanity, thereby summoning ideological or ethical considerations. Readings in film stylistics, theory, and criticism are included. No prior knowledge of film is necessary. Ms. Cardonne-Arlyck.

One 2-hour period and screenings.

399a or b. Senior Independent Work (1⁄2 or 1)

One unit of credit given only in exceptional cases and by permission of the Chair. The department.

Vassar-Wesleyan Program in Paris

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

245a. Intensive Language/ Bordeaux (1⁄2)

The orientation session attempts to address most of the needs and concerns of students studying for a semester or a year in Paris. In addition to offering an intensive grammar review that allows students to function at a higher level in their classes in Paris, the Alliance also offers workshops placing a major emphasis on spoken French.

250a. Paris through the Centuries (1)

The aim of this course is to provide an in-depth geographical, historical and cultural perspective of the city of Paris. Each seminar/visit focuses on a neighborhood whose origins and unique aspects we learn about through an analysis of historical, artistic and literary references. Readings include texts by Balzac, Hugo, Zola and Corneille. Mr. Peigné.

251a. Love and Tragedy in French Theater (1)

The course first studies the nature of seventeenth-century tragedy as transformed by Corneille and Racine, who grafted a love story onto the core of myth. We then move to the twentieth century’s reshaping of the notion of the tragic through the influence of various philosophical currents. Questions of style (baroque and classical) and philosophy (existentialism and the absurd) are foregrounded, with emphasis both on the continuity of tragic literature and on formal variations from the seventeenth century to the present. Plays are chosen in light of the Paris theatrical season, so as to allow the analysis of a number of live performances. Mr. Clément.

252a. Special Topics (1)

This course is taught by the resident director. Topic varies each year.

253b. Intimate Fictions (1)

Certain literary works, especially epistolary novels, diaries and monologues, are centered around the intimate lives of their narrator or fictional author(s). In entering into their fictional lives, the reader is offered a kind of pleasure that borders on the illicit. The central characters in intimate fictions are often motivated by a will to dominate others and a desire for unlimited personal freedom. Other narratives portray a protagonist engaged in an existential quest for truth that ends in various forms of despair, madness, disgust, and indifference. In terms of style, intimate fictions are often fragmentary in nature, since they both focus on the moment of writing and borrow from the world of spoken language. Whereas epistolary novels and fictional diaries tend to make fun of their models in order to highlight the frontier between fiction and testimony, literary monologues, at least those written in the twentieth century, create a fictional author who blurs the boundaries between truth and fiction. Works studied include: Claude Crébillon fils’ Lettres de la Marquise de M*** au Comte de R***, Maupassant’s Le Horla, Sartre’s La Nusée, and Georges Perec’s Un Homme qui dort. Ms. de Chalonge.

255b. French Theater (1)

Topic for 2005/06: Twentieth Century French Theater. This course is a study of contemporary French plays and theoretical texts on theater, combined with attendance at plays currently on the French stage. Four diverse plays will be chosen from among those running during the current Parisian season to provide a panorama of contemporary trends in French theater. Students will read and study plays and theoretical texts on contemporary French theater, attend productions, and discuss and critique them through written work and exposés. Mr. Clément.

256b. Enlightenment Literature (1)

An introduction to the nature and spirit of the French Enlightenment through some of the major literary and philosophical works of the period. The course involves a historical presentation of the eighteenth century as well as a study of great individual works to which we still refer today in our thinking about art, science, politics, and love: Montesquieu’s Lettres persanes; Rousseau’s Discours; Diderot’s Rêve de d’Alembert and Paradoxe sur le Comédien; Voltaire’s polemical writings. Mr. Chartier.

260a. Studies in French Cinema. (1)

Topic for 2005/06: French Literature and Cinema. The purpose of this course is to explore the relationship between literature and cinema through a close analysis of various films from the sixties. We will explore different forms of interactions between literature and cinema such as the adaptation of a literary text to the screen (Max Ophuls/Guy de Maupassant or Delvaux and Andre Gracq) or writers who became filmmakers (Marguerite Duras, Jean Cocteau, Andre Malraux). Students will learn how to decipher an image and will study various literary texts (Ponge, Gracq, Duras and Breton). Mr. Leutrat.

261b. From Canova to Picasso: French Sculpture from 1800 to 1914 (1)

The nineteenth century is for French sculpture a period rich in continuities and contradictions, of famous and lesser known masters. This course covers the 1800s when the eighteenth century “grâces” are outshined by the “grandeurs sereines” of the neo-classical school dominated by Canova, and soon by Jean-Baptiste Houdon in France. We examine the influence of Romanticism through the works of François Rude, Barye, and Préault. We appreciate how David D’Angers, Pradier and Bosio take on this “Ecole du Mouvement” and establish a less exalted tradition. We move on to the Second Empire dominated by Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux and by Napoléon III’s great monumental commissions (the Louvre, the Opéra Garnier, etc.). From the 1870s on, the French school of Sculpture breaks up into several movements: from Realism to Orientalism, from Symbolism to the Neo-Baroque, a major figure of this time being Rodin. We conclude with the “Belle Epoque” statuary, when a sharp distinction arises between the establishment and a radical form of modernity, represented by Picasso’s, Brancusi’s, and Archipenko’s elaborate research which redefines the meaning of sculpture. Authors studied include: S. Lami, M. Rheims, H. Berman, P. Fusco and H.W. Janson, J. Hargrove, R. Butler, M.T. Baudry, J.L. Ferrier, P. Kjellberg. Mr. Peigné.

262b. Special Topics (1)

This course is taught by the resident director. Topic varies each year.

Topic for 2005/06: Exploring Paris Archives. After initial guided visits to a variety of specialized libraries, museums and archival collections in Paris, students design and carry out in various stages a research project based on archival materials. Institutions include the Bibliothèque de I’Arsenal, the Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris, the Musée de la mode, the Métro Médiathèque, the Bibliothèque de la Société de l’histoire du protestantisme français, and the Bibliothèque Marguerite Durand, France’s major feminist archive. Ms. Reno.

263a. France and the European Union: the Ambitious and Limits of a World Power (1)

After the long and troubled period of the second World War, France recovered an institutional equilibrium and a European framework amenable to its emergence as a European and world power. This new status, struggled for by General De Gaulle, and despite adverse national and international circumstances, provided a privileged space in which to assert itself through the construction of Europe. A founding member of the E.U., France put Europe at the center of its international strategy and quest for power. However, France lost its dominant position overtime and was forced to compromise. A number of re-adjustments regarding its political system, foreign policy, identity, economy, and relation to the non-European world had to be taken into consideration. How does France deal with these transformations? What are their characteristics? What are their impact on French society and its political system? How does France assume its change of position from an independent power to that of a European member state? Mr. Amegan.

264b. “Are the French Exceptional?” A Cultural History of Modern France, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (1)

A historical study of French cultural practices, productions and models in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The course follows the emergence of cultural “modernity” from the Revolution to the Republic and examines the gradual decline of religious and rural life, the challenges encountered by an academic and cultural elite, the cultural experiments of the avant-garde, and the democratization of culture through the rapid rise of consumerism and mass production. Major authors include Pierre Bourdieu, Roger Chartier, Michel Foucault, and Walter Benjamin. Mr. Kalifa.

265b. Franco-African Relations (1)

Beginning with a survey of precolonial kingdoms in Africa and the implantation of Islam, the course proceeds to an analysis of European intervention and of the structure of European colonial administration. Various phases of the African independence movement are highlighted: the formation of an African elite, the spread of African nationalisms, Panafricanism, and “Négritude.” Finally, we examine French policies in the post-colonial period and the U.S.’s emerging role in African affairs. Mr. Amégan.

266b. Politics and Society (1)

Topic may vary each year.

Topic for 2005/06: Gender in France. This course explores the various feminist movements that took place in France from 1830 to the present. Beyond the historical process, the course aims to examine the interaction between feminism and politics, feminism and the queer movement, feminism, social classes and race. This course gives students a complete update on France today and issues involving women. Ms. Taraud.

267a, 268b. History of Art (1)

This course focuses, each semester, on a different period in the history of French art, with special emphasis on the works of one or several of the major artists of the period, or of one school of art. Class visits to the Louvre, the Musée d’Orsay, the Orangerie, the Picasso Museum, or other museums containing works by artists under study are an integral part of the course. Topics may vary each year.

Topic for 2005/06: Metamorphosis of the Object. Art reflects, as Spengler says, a cultural physiognomy of society. W. Benjamin denounces the mutations caused by mass reproduction ad infinitum of the object. R. Barthes speaks about a mythology of everyday life within which objects acquire a new fetishistic character. Introducing the object into the field of art, Duchamp endowed the object with a specific idiosyncrasy. The transposition of the object is based on the artist’s choice and will formulate the relationship between himself and the world. The artist is open to a civilization in crisis and he uses an object in a way which is propitious for him. The interactive relationship between art and life - established through the banal object -inspired a unique artistic mode which was entirely apart. This course focuses attention on these premises, and poses the question “what is an object in art and how far can it be defined by different aspects?” It will look at artists from several generations who possess radically different intentions. Ms. Kraguly.

Topic for 2005/06: From The Ideal Body to The Mutilated Body. This course aims to generate a theoretical reflection on the use of the body in Art. The course material seeks to examine and analyze how the body has long been manipulated through its relationship with cultural, religious and political institutions, right up to the threshold of exploitation. We explore the body as a construction of forms of discourse, obligations and instruments of control. Ms. Kraguly.

269b. Music and Culture (1)

Topic may vary each year.

Topic for 2005/06: Lyric Opera. The course retraces the history of opera in France through an appreciation of the lyric form in its musical and literary manifestations, and as a reflection of the cultural life of France in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Emphasis is given to the relation between the dramatic and musical arts, the collaboration between librettist and composer, and approaches to staging. Three operas are examined in detail: Claudio Monteverdi’s Le Couronnement de Poppée, Guiseppe Verdi’s Otello, and Wagner’s Tristan et Isolde. Students attend performances of these works at the Gamier and the Bastille opera houses, and are asked to attend a fourth opera on their own. Visits to museums of music and opera are also arranged. Students are asked for a small financial participation for the opera tickets. Prerequisites: General background in music recommended. Mr. Memed.

272a and b. Writing Workshop (1⁄2)

This half-credit course is required of all students. Those attending the Vassar-Wesleyan Program for the full year take the workshop during the first semester only. The course prepares students to write papers for their classes. It covers common problems encountered in writing French and introduces students to the organization and style of written assignments in France. Students meet individually with a tutor once a week for an additional half-hour.

273a, 274b. Special Topics: University of Paris (1)

Students in the Paris Program have the opportunity to enroll in French university courses under the supervision of the resident director and receive Vassar credit.

275b. Internship (2)

Internship in a French governmental, civic or volunteer organization through cooperation with the Internships in Francophone Europe program. Special application procedure.