Professors: Miriam Cohen, James H. Merrell (Chair), David L. Schalk;Associate Professors: Robert Brighama, Leslie Offutt; Assistant Professors: Nancy Bisahaa, Mita Choudhury, Rebecca Edwards, Maria Höhnab, Jin Jiangb, Lydia Murdoch, Michaela Pohl, Ismail Rashidb.

Requirements for Concentration: 11 units, to include the following courses above the introductory level: 1 unit in European history; 1 unit in United States history; 1 unit in Asian, African, or Latin American history; 1 unit of pre–1700 history chosen from among History 215, 225, 259, 262, 271, 274, 315, 331; 202; 300; in addition to the Thesis, two 300–level courses. No cross–listed courses originating in another department may be used for distribution requirements. No more than two cross–listed courses originating in another department can count toward the history minimum requirement of 11 units.

Requirement for all juniors in residence: History 202 (Thesis Preparation).

Senior–Year Requirements: History 300 (Thesis) and at least one other 300–level course.

Recommendations: Reading knowledge of at least one foreign language. Students planning to go on to graduate school should find out which language examinations are required for advanced degrees.

Advisers: The department.

Correlate Sequence in History Requirements: No fewer than 6 units in history, normally taken at Vassar. Ordinarily, this will include one course at the introductory level, at least three at the intermediate level, and at least one course at the advanced level. AP credit will not be accepted for the correlate sequence. No more than one (1) History course counted toward the correlate may be taken NRO.

Students should apply to the Correlate Sequence Adviser in their sophomore or junior year after discussing their plans with their major advisers. No correlate sequence can be declared after the beginning of the senior year. The courses selected for the sequence should form a coherent course of study. The list of the courses proposed and a brief written proposal articulating the focus of the sequence must be submitted to the Correlate Sequence Adviser for approval prior to declaration.

I. Introductory

In format, these are period courses. Their purpose is to provide a general understanding of historical thinking: what subjects historians are interested in and why; their variety; how historians argue their case; what terms they use; what conclusions they reach. Besides providing basic information, these courses include the study of historical methods and schools of interpretations of, and approaches to, history, and incorporate exercises in drawing up historical propositions.

[111a. Imperial China] (1)

A survey of Chinese history from antiquity to the founding of the Qing dynasty in the seventeenth century, this course examines the patterns of continuity and change that have formed China's unique civilization. Beginning with China's historical and philosophical origins, topics include the development of the centralized state during the Qin and Han dynasties; the social and political turmoil of medieval China; the reestablishment of social order during the Sui and Tang dynasties; and the literary, artistic, and scientific achievements by both men and women of the Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. Ms. Jiang.

Not offered in 2001/02.

116b. "The Dark Ages" c.400–900 (1)

Was early medieval Europe really Dark? In reality, this was a period of tremendous vitality and ferment, witnessing the growth of Germanic kingdoms, the high point of the Byzantine Empire, the rise of the papacy and monasticism, and the birth of Islam. This course examines a rich variety of sources that illuminate the unfortunately named "dark ages," showing moments of both conflict and synthesis that arose from the meeting of Classical, Christian, and "barbarian" cultures. Ms. Bisaha.

Section .51 fulfills the Freshman Course requirement. It is open to freshmen only.

Section .52 is open to all classes.

121a or b. Modern Europe, from the Fall of Napoleon to the Present (1)

This course is designed to introduce students both to European history from the fall of Napoleon in 1815 to the present, and to the way historians have interpreted this period. Although our main focus is the major political events of this periodthe rise and fall of European powers and the changing map of Europewe also look beneath the political stage at social, economic, and intellectual development. The department.

123a. Europe at the Crossroads, 1500–1789 (1)

In 1500 Europe faced a series of profound challenges and hard choices. This course explores how European identity changed dramatically as a result of great religious, political, and social upheaval within Europe as well as the "discovery" of worlds beyond the continent. How did peoplerich and poor, men and womenexperience such wrenching change? Topics include witchcraft, reformation, encounters with America, Asia, and Africa, and the "revolutions"political, intellectual, and socialthat defined the period. Ms. Choudhury.

[130a. English History: Pre–Norman Conquest to the Death of Elizabeth I (1603)] (1)

English society, government, art, and literature with special emphasis on feudalism, manorialism, Magna Carta, the conflict between church and state, the growth of the city, and the development of royal justice and Parliament. The historian's craft and the close analysis of a variety of original texts are an integral part of the course.

Not offered in 2001/02.

141a. Tradition, History, and the African Experience (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 141) From ancient stone tools and monuments to oral narratives and colonial documents, the course examines how the African past has been recorded, preserved, and transmitted over the generations. It looks at the challenges faced by the historian in Africa and the multi–disciplinary techniques used to reconstruct and interpret African history. Various texts, artifacts, and oral narratives from ancient times to the present are analyzed to see how conceptions and interpretations of the African past have changed over time. Mr. Rashid.

Section .01 fulfills the Freshman Course requirement. It is open to freshmen only.

Section .02 is open to all classes.

151b. British History: James I (1603) to the Great War (1)

This course explores the central developments in Britain from the age of Shakespeare to the age of total war. We study the political and scientific revolutions of the seventeenth century, the eighteenth–century rise of commercial society and the "British" nation, and the effects of industrialization on Britain's landscape, society, and politics. The course concludes by exploring how the First World War transformed British society. Ms. Murdoch.

160a or b. American Moments: Readings in U.S. History (1)

This course explores some of the pivotal moments in American history, from the late colonial era to the late twentieth century. While roughly chronological, the course is not a survey. Rather, it focuses on selected events, people, and texts that illuminate particularly crucial periods in America's past. Topics include the process of nation building, racial and ethnic relations, gender roles, protest movements and the growth of the regulatory state, the Cold War, and the paradox of class formation in a "classless" society. The department.

Section .01 in a–semester fulfills the Freshman Course requirement. It is open to freshmen only.

Other sections are open to all classes.

[162b. Latin America: The Aftermath of Encounter] (1)

This course adopts a thematic approach to the development of Latin American societies, treating such issues as cultural contact and the development of strategies of survival, the development and regional distribution of African slavery, the quest for national identity in the early nineteenth century, the impact of United States imperialism in Latin America, and the revolutionary struggles of the twentieth century. As an introductory course both to the discipline and to multidisciplinary studies, it draws, among other sources, on chronicles (both European and indigenous), travelers' accounts, testimonial literature, and literary treatments to provide the student a broad–based preparation for more advanced study of the region. Ms. Offutt.

Not offered in 2001/02.

II. Intermediate

The prerequisite for courses at the 200–level is 1 unit in history.

201a. African Conceptions: Shaping of Freedom (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 201 and College Course 201)

202b. Thesis Preparation (1/2)

The department.

For second–semester juniors in residence only.

215b. The High Middle Ages c.950–1300 (1)

This course examines medieval Europe at both its cultural and political height. Topics of study include: the first universities; government from feudal lordships to national monarchies; courtly and popular culture; manorial life and town life; the rise of papal monarchy; new religious orders and spirituality among the laity. Relations with religious outsiders are explored in topics on European Jewry, heretics, and the Crusades. Ms. Bisaha.

216a. The Formation of Greek Culture: Greece from the Bronze Age Through the Persian Wars (1)

(Same as Classics 216) Ms. Dewald.

[217a. Democracy and Imperialism: Athenian Democracy, The Peloponnesian Wars and the Aftermath] (1)

(Same as Classics 217) Mr. Lott.

Not offered in 2001/02.

218b. Republican Rome (1)

(Same as Classics 218) Mr. Lott.

[219b. The Roman Empire: From Julio–Claudian Era Through the Fall] (1)

(Same as Classics 219) Mr. Lott.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[222b. Modern China] (1)

The 1911 abdication of Puyi, the last emperor of China, signaled the collapse of a dynastic system that had existed for over ten millennia. Since then, China has been on a course of upheaval and transformation, marked by war, revolution, and sweeping social, political, and economic changes. This course surveys major political and social changes in China from the eighteenth through the twentieth centuries, focusing on the conflict between a self–centered China and an imperial West; the rise and fall of the Nationalist regime; the origins and development of Chinese communism; and the rise of women in modern China. Ms. Jiang.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[223b. Contemporary China] (1)

Mao Zedong's idea of "continuous revolution," which first appeared in the early years of the People's Republic of China and culminated in the Cultural Revolution, influenced not only Chinese society but also leftist movements worldwide in the middle of the Cold War. This course begins with a historical review of the origins and development of the Chinese communist movement during the Republican period. It then surveys the political, intellectual, social, and economic aspects from the founding of the PRC to the end of the Cultural Revolution, focusing on the dual goals of making revolution and nation building as well as the achievements and losses of Chinese society under Mao's leadership. The course concludes with an examination of the nature of change in the post–Mao era, the promise and problems of economic reform, and how Mao's legacy and economic reform are re–shaping China's national goals, Chinese identities, and China's foreign relations. Ms. Jiang.

Not offered in 2001/02.

224a. Modern Japan (1)

This is an introduction to modern Japanese society, culture, and foreign relations from the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries. The course searches for an internal logic of change behind the transformation of Japan from a feudal society to a modern economic power. We also examine how relations with the West and with neighboring Asian nations, especially China and Korea, have influenced Japan's path to modernization. Ms. Jiang.

[225b. Renaissance Europe c.1300–c.1525] (1)

A study of the forces of continuity and innovationsocial, political, and cultural in Western society from the age of Dante to that of Erasmus and More; consideration of the ideas of "rebirth'' and "reform'' as they affected religion, philosophy, learning, and the arts. Ms. Bisaha.

Not offered in 2001/02.

229b. History of India (1)

This course looks at Indian history from antiquity to the twentieth century. Among the topics covered are the changing nature of Hinduism, the evolution of caste, divisions between Hindus and Muslims, imperialism and Indian nation building. Special attention is given to the Mughal empire, the presence of the British, and the challenges India has faced after independence. Ms. Choudhury.

230b. From Tyranny to Terror: The Old Regime and the French Revolution (1)

Eighteenth–century France was a society in transition, a society in which social and cultural ideals and realities were increasingly at odds. The tensions within society and the state finally erupted into the cataclysmic French Revolution, which paved the way for modern political life. Using primary and secondary sources, this course focuses on topics such as the social structure of the Old Regime, the Enlightenment, and the volatile political climate preceding the revolution. We examine different interpretations of what caused the French Revolution as well as the dynamics of the Revolution itself between 1789 and 1799. Ms. Choudhury.

[235a. The Two Germanys in a Divided Europe] (1)

For more than forty years, the division of Germany into a capitalist West and a communist East exemplified the realities of Cold War Europe. This course explores how the two German states developed after 1945, and how unification came about in 1990. Close attention is given to the interaction of geo–politics and national politics, and how those forces impacted social and cultural developments in both states. Ms. Höhn.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[236a. Germany, 1740–1914] (1)

This course covers the history of the German lands from 1740 to the eve of World War I. Aside from providing a chronological political narrative, assigned readings focus in greater detail on a number of themes to illuminate the specific character of German history. Topics include: the demise of the universalist idea of the Holy Roman Empire; the German Enlightenment and the legacy of enlightened absolutism on state/society relations; the impact of the Napoleonic revolution; the failures of 1848; the Prussian–led unification; the legacy of Bismarck's domestic policies on German political culture and social life; Wilhelmine "Weltpolitik." Ms. Höhn.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[237b. Germany, 1890–1990] (1)

This course covers German History from 1890 to the 1990 unification that ended the post­World War II split of German society into East and West. Aside from familiarizing you with a narrative of German political, social and cultural history, the readings also explore some of the so–called "peculiarities" of German history. Did Bismarck's unification from above and the pseudo–constitutional character of the Second Reich create a political culture that set the country on a Sonderweg (special path) of modernization ending in the catastrophe of Auschwitz? Why did Weimar, Germany's first experiment with democracy fail, and why is Bonn not Weimar? Finally, what road will the new Germany take within Europe and the world? Ms. Höhn.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[238a. France, 1815–1940] (1)

French history from the fall of Napoleon through the crisis at the turn of the twentieth century represented by the Dreyfus Affair to the end of the Third Republic. In addition to more traditional political, military, and diplomatic topics, social and cultural themes are examined. Mr. Schalk.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[239b. Collapse of Empire and Rebirth of a Nation, France Since 1940] (1)

French history from the "Strange Defeat" of May–June 1940 to the "Strange Victory" of François Mitterrand and the Socialist Party in May–June 1981, and beyond. Special attention is paid to the extended and painful process of decolonization, including close study of France's own war in Vietnam, 1946–54, and the "War Without a Name," Algeria, 1954–62. Mr. Schalk.

Not offered in 2001/02.

242a. The Russian Empire, 1552–1917 (1)

(Formerly History 245) This course introduces major events and issues in the history of the Russian empire from the conquest of Kazan to the February revolution, 1552–1917. What effect did expansion have on Russia and what role did non–Russians play in this multi–ethnic empire? Why did autocratic rule last so long in Russia and what led to its collapse? Using primary sourcesincluding documents in translation and ethnographic accountsand drawing on new ways of seeing the imperial experience, we explore not only sources of conflict, but points of contact, encounters, and intersections of state and social institutions. Ms. Pohl.

[243b. The Soviet Union and the Rebirth of Russia, 1917–Present] (1)

This course examines the history of Russian and non–Russian peoples in the Soviet Union, focusing on the Bolshevik revolution, the Stalin period, and the difficulties of reforming the system under Krushchev and Gorbachev. Using sources including oral history and ethnographic accounts, we explore how Soviet society was shaped by the imperial legacy, Communist ideology, modernization, and war. Special attention is paid to the collapse of the Soviet Union and to the nature of change in the post–Soviet era. Ms. Pohl.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[248a. Out of the Ghetto] (1)

(Same as Religion 248) Ms. Moore.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[249a. The Jewish Experience in the Twentieth Century] (1)

(Same as Religion 249) Ms. Moore.

Not offered in 2001/02.

251b. A History of American Foreign Relations (1)

An historical analysis of the foreign relations of the United States, emphasizing the social, economic, and ideological forces involved in the formulation of foreign policy. Major topics include: the City Upon a Hill; manifest destiny; a continental empire; the Open Door; the struggle between isolationism and internationalism; American entry into the World Wars; the origins of the Cold War; the Korean and Viet Nam War; and detente. Mr. Brigham.

254b. Victorian Britain (1)

This course examines some of the key transformations that Victorians experienced, including industrialization, the rise of a class–based society, political reform, and the women's movement. We explore why people then, and historians since, have characterized the Victorian age as a time of progress and optimism as well as an era of anxiety and doubt. Ms. Murdoch.

255a. The British Empire (1)

This course is an introduction to British imperialism from the mid–eighteenth century to the present, with particular attention to Britain's involvement in Ireland, the Caribbean, India, and Africa. We examine British motives for imperialism, the transition from trade empires to more formal political control, and the late nineteenth–century "scramble for Africa." Other main topics include responses to colonialism, the growth of nationalism, decolonization, and the effects of an increasingly multi–cultural domestic population on Britain. Throughout the course we explore the empire as a cultural exchange: the British influenced the lives of colonial subjects, but the empire also shaped British identity at home and abroad. Ms. Murdoch.

257a or b. Justice (1)

An attempt to uncover certain realities of contemporary history through a study of great trials. A major theme will be the distinction between moral and legal justice as it resolves into the conflict between Justice and raison d'etat. Topics include the Dreyfus Affair, the Sacco–Vanzetti Trial, the Burning of the Reichstag, the Moscow Purge Trials, Nuremberg, the Alger Hiss Trials, the Rosenberg Case, the McCarthy Hearings, Eichmann, the trials of Jack Ruby, the "Chicago Seven," the "Catonsville Nine," Lieutenant William Calley, and others. Mr. Schalk.

[259b. The History of the Family in Early Modern Europe] (1)

This course examines the changing notions of family, marriage, and childhood between 1500 and 1800 and their ties to the larger early modern context. During this period, Europeans came to see the family less as a network of social and political relationships and more as a set of bonds based on intimacy and affection. Major topics include: the Reformation and witchcraft, absolutism and paternal authority, and the increasing importance of the idea of the nuclear family. Ms. Choudhury.

Not offered in 2001/02.

260b. Women in the United States to 1890 (1)

An examination of women's social, economic, and political roles in colonial America and the eighteenth and nineteenth century U.S. The course emphasizes varieties of experience based on race, ethnicity, class, and geographical region. Major issues include the household and other workplaces, changes in society and family life, slavery and emancipation, and women's growing influence in public affairs from the Revolution to the Gilded Age. Ms. Edwards.

261a. History of Women in the United States Since 1890 (1)

Traces the changes in female employment patterns, how women combined work and family responsibilities, how changes in work and family affected women's leisure lives from the late nineteenth century through the development of postindustrial America. The course also explores the women's rights movements of the twentieth century, and how class, race, and ethnicity combined with gender to shape women's lives. Ms. Cohen.

[262a. Early Latin America to 1750] (1)

This course examines the pre–Columbian worlds of Mesoamerica and the Andean region, then turns to a treatment of the consequences of contact between those worlds and the European. Special emphasis is placed on the examination of mindsets and motives of colonizer and colonized and the quest for identity in the American context (both issues intimately related to questions of race and ethnicity), the struggle to balance concerns for social justice against the search for profits, the evolution of systems of labor appropriation, the expansion of the mining sector, and the changing nature of land exploitation and tenure. Ms. Offutt.

Not offered in 2001/02.

263a. From Colony to Nation: Latin America in the Nineteenth Century (1)

This course treats the transition from colony to nation in Spanish and Portuguese America. In part a thematic course treating such topics as the Liberal/Conservative struggles of the early nineteenth century, the consequences of latifundism, the abolition of slavery, and the impact of foreign economic penetration and industrialization, it also adopts a national approach, examining the particular historical experiences of selected nations. Ms. Offutt.

264b. The Revolutionary Option? Latin America in the Twentieth Century (1)

This course investigates why certain Latin American nations in the twentieth century opted for revolution and others adopted a more conservative course. It examines the efforts of selected Latin American nations (Mexico, Cuba, Chile, Nicaragua, Guatemala) to address the tremendous social and economic cleavages affecting them, with special attention paid to material, political, class, and cultural structures shaping their experiences. Ms. Offutt.

265 African American History to 1865 (1)

(Same as African Studies 265) This course traces the lives of African captives from Africa across the Atlantic and explores their experiences in North America. It addresses not only how bondage brutalized African Americans but also the strategies they devised to counter slavery, including religion, resistance, and the development of a distinctive African American culture. Other topics include free black communities, black abolitionists, and African AmericansÕ role in the Civil War. Ms. Taylor

267b. African-American History, 1861-Present (1)

(same as Africana Studies 267) This course surveys the major themes, events, and people in modern African American history, with an emphasis on the continuing struggle for full citizenship, equality, and justice. Beginning with the Civil War, the class explores the different modes and degrees of racism that have shaped the black experience. But more than simply revisiting the oppression, the course portrays African Americans as central actors in their own history. In this vein, we examine tactics of protest and activism, and methods of self-definition and self-assertion. Topics include migration, culture, religion, feminism, and nationalism. Ms. Taylor

Two 75–minute periods

[271a. Perspectives on the African Past: Africa Before 1800] (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 271) A thematic survey of African civilizations and societies from antiquity to 1800. The course examines how demographic and technological changes, warfare, religion, trade, and external relations shaped the evolution of the Nile Valley civilizations, the East African city–states, the Empires of the Western Sudan and the Forest Kingdoms of West Africa. Some attention is devoted to the consequences of the Atlantic Slave trade which developed from Europe's contact with Africa from the fifteenth century onwards. Mr. Rashid.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[272b. Modern African History] (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 272) A study of the major political, economic, social, and intellectual developments in the unfolding of the African experience from the early nineteenth century to the present time. Attention is directed to the broad spectrum of contacts of Africa with the outside world in trade, diplomacy, etc., prior to the advent of full–scale European imperialism and colonialism in the late nineteenth century. The course focuses on the rise of the Pan–African movement, African nationalism, the decolonization process, the emergence of independent African states, and the dilemmas of postcolonialism: neocolonialism, development issues, and post–independence politics. Mr. Rashid.

Not offered in 2001/02.

274a. Colonial America, 1500–1750 (1)

The world colonial AmericansEuropean, African, and Indianfashioned for themselves and bequeathed to us: their migrations, their religions, their social values and social structures, their political culture, and their rebellions. Mr. Merrell.

275b. Revolutionary America, 1750–1830 (1)

The causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution. Themes include how thirteen disparate colonies came to challenge, and defeat, Great Britain; the social effects of the War for Independence; the creation of republican governments; the search for stability at home and security abroad; the development of national identity; and the experience of those Americans excluded from the phrase "All Men are Created Equal." Mr. Merrell.

276a. House Divided: The U.S., 1830–1890 (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 276) Beginning with regional economies and social changes in the antebellum years, this course examines the causes and conduct of the Civil War and the aftermath of that conflict in the Gilded Age. Special emphasis is given to slavery and post–Emancipation race relations, conquest of the American West, and the rise of an American industrial order. Ms. Edwards.

[277a. The Making of the "American Century": 1890–1945] (1)

Focuses on major social, political, and cultural developments during the decades when the United States emerged as the preeminent industrial power. The changes in the social and political institutions which emerged out of the crises of the 1890s, the Great Depression, and World War II. The growth of mass consumption and mass leisure in this very diverse society. Ms. Cohen.

Not offered in 2001/02.

278b. Cold War America: The United States Since 1945 (1)

An examination of the political, social, economic, and cultural changes in the United States since 1945. Major topics include: McCarthyism; suburbanization; the Civil Rights Movements; the Kennedy Years; the war in Viet Nam; the anti–war protest; and the growing nuclear threat. Mr. Brigham.

290. Field Work (1/2 or 1)

Individual or group field projects, especially in local, state, or federal history. May be taken either semester or in summer. The department.

Prerequisite or corequisite: an appropriate course in the department. Permission required.

298. Independent Work (1/2 or 1)

Permission required.

III. Advanced

Prerequisite for all advanced courses: 2 units of 200–level work. Specific prerequisites assume the general prerequisite.

300a. Senior Thesis (1 or 2)

[315b. The Crusades] (1)

The Crusades stand as one of the most intriguing, yet misunderstood, phenomena of the medieval period. This course examines the religious and cultural origins of the Crusade movement, campaigns and political developments, and the impact of the Crusades on relations between Christians and MusliMs. This course primarily focuses on the Holy Land, but some time is also devoted to the Spanish Reconquista, the decline of Byzantium, and the rise of the Ottoman Turks. Ms. Bisaha.

Prerequisite: History 215 or by permission of instructor.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[322b. Maoism and Cultural Revolution] (1)

Late in life, Mao Zedong launched the Cultural Revolution. The ten years from 1966 to 1976 witnessed social upheaval, mass movements, violence, and persecution. What were the origins of the Cultural Revolution? What did Mao want to accomplish through the Cultural Revolution? How was the Cultural Revolution experienced and how is it remembered? In this seminar, we explore the many facets of the Cultural Revolution and its later interpretation by citizens, scholars, and the state leadership. Primary sources include state documents, Mao's writings, memoirs, fictions, and filMs. Ms. Jiang.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[323b. Remembrance of War and Modern East Asian Nations] (1)

This seminar looks at the ways World War II is remembered in China, Japan, and Korea, and how the events of the War help define national identities and shape regional politics, as well as international relations in the Pacific Rim, in which the U.S. is deeply involved. The course develops around a few case studies, including the Tokyo trial and the beginning of the Cold War in Asia, the textbook controversy, the tearing down of the colonial building in Korea in the early 1990s, and the controversy around the 1997 bestseller The Rape of Nanking.Ms. Jiang.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[331a. Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe] (1)

This course examines the history of European women from 1500 to 1789. We look at the life cycles of early modern women, taking into account the differences resulting from class, nationality, and ethnicity. In addition to surveying the fabric of European women's lives in this period, we also examine how men regarded women, and how gender relations shaped early modern notions of society and power. Ms. Choudhury.

Not offered in 2001/02.

332a. The Enlightenment (1)

The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement of great power and scope. Seeking to overhaul society completely, a diverse group of thinkers examined all aspects of human existence, from religion, politics, and science to crime, sex, and art. However, the Enlightenment was much more than merely a philosophical exercise. These thinkers did not just articulate new ideas; they redefined "the intellectual" as an active participant in society. To what extent were their ideas truly revolutionary? To what extent were they successful in effecting change? What legacy did they leave for the architects of the French Revolution and, more generally, the modern era? Ms. Choudhury.

[336b. Americanization in Europe] (1)

This seminar examines the worldwide phenomenon of "Americanization" as it manifested itself in Europe throughout the twentieth century. The class explores whether the term "Americanization" is a helpful and appropriate one by studying a number of European countries. The first part of the seminar focuses on how Europeans envisioned America in the early decades of the century. We examine how the differing national debates around "America" and "Americanization" can provide insights into a country's path into modernity. The second part of this seminar focuses on the years after World War II when the American influence in Europe became ever more pronounced. The special case of Germany is acknowledged by studying the de–Nazification and democratization efforts of the American military government. We also explore the American predominance in popular culture and its effect on European youth culture in both Eastern and Western Europe. Ms. Höhn.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[337b. The Rise and Fall of Nazi Germany] (1)

This course explores the Third Reich by locating it within the peculiar nature of German political culture resulting from late unification and rapid industrialization. Readings explore how and why the Nazis emerged as a mass party during the troubled Weimar years. The years between 1933 and 1945 are treated by focusing on Nazi domestic, foreign and racial policies. Ms. Höhn.

Prerequisite: one of the following: History 236, 237; or permission of instructor.

Not offered in 2001/02.

343a. Youth in Russia, 1880–Present (1)

This seminar explores the history of youth culture in Russia. We examine how youth and teenagers were "discovered" and defined as an age group through ethnographies, sociological accounts, and memoirs, and explore the youth experience as depicted in films and documentaries. Topics include experiences of youth during periods of reform, youth legislation, youth institutions, youth and Stalinism, the experience of girls. The course concludes with an exploration of contemporary Russian teen culture, focusing on music and its role in the 1980s and 1990s. Ms. Pohl.

[351a. The Viet Nam War] (1)

An examination of the origins, course, and impact of America's involvement in Viet Nam, emphasizing the evolution of American diplomacy, the formulation of military strategy, the domestic impact of the war, and the perspective of Vietnamese revolutionaries. Mr. Brigham.

Not offered in 2001/02.

355a. Childhood and Children in Nineteenth–Century Britain (1)

This course examines both the social constructions of childhood and the experiences of children in Britain during the nineteenth century, a period of immense industrial and social change. We analyze the various understandings of childhood at the beginning of the century (including utilitarian, Romantic, and evangelical approaches to childhood) and explore how, by the end of the century, all social classes shared similar expectations of what it meant to be a child. Main topics include the relationships between children and parents, child labor, sexuality, education, health and welfare, abuse, delinquency, and children as imperial subjects. Ms. Murdoch.

361b. Varieties of the Latin American Indian Experience (1)

This course treats the Indian world of Latin America as it responded to increased European penetration in the post–1500 period. Focusing primarily on Mesoamerica and the Andean region, it examines the variety of ways indigenous peoples dealt with cultural dislocation associated with the imposition of colonial systems and the introduction of the modern state. The course treats as well the Indian policies of the state, and how those policies reflected assumptions about the role of indigenous peoples in the larger society. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the process of negotiation of identitywhat it meant to be Indian in an increasingly European society, and how the interpenetration of the two worlds, and the response of one to the other, reshaped each world. Ms. Offutt.

[363a. Revolution and Conflict in Twentieth–Century Latin America] (1)

(Formerly 386) (Same as Latin American Studies 363) Revolution has been a dominant theme in the history of Latin America since 1910. This course examines the revolutionary experiences of three nationsMexico, Cuba, and Nicaragua. It examines theories of revolution, then assesses the revolutions themselvesthe conditions out of which each revolution developed, the conflicting ideologies at play, the nature of the struggles, and the postrevolutionary societies that emerged from the struggles. Ms. Offutt.

Prerequisite: by special permission of instructor.

Not offered in 2001/02.

365 A Resistant Spirit: Black Mississippi, Jim Crow, and Grass Roots Activism, 1877-2000 (1)

(same as Africana Studies 365) Perhaps nowhere in modern America can the racial contest between white and black be more fruitfully studied than in the state of Mississippi. Using white supremacy and black activism in Mississippi as its focal points, this seminar explores the Civil Rights movement from the end of Reconstruction to the present day. We examine the mechanisms of racial violence, segregation, and political repression, while also tracing how black Mississippians mobilized, organized and finally empowered themselves. In addition, the course critiques various types of sources - including oral testimony, biography, local studies, and state surveys- in order to better understand this chapter in American race relations. Ms. Taylor

One 2–hour period.

366a. Studies in Native American History (1)

The Indian response to the invasion of America, focusing on the native peoples east of the Mississippi River prior to their removal during the Jacksonian era. Topics include the value of ethnohistorical methods for understanding the Indian experience, the biological and cultural consequences of contact between Old World and New, the development of stable patterns of intercultural relations, and the road to Indian Removal. Mr. Merrell.

[367b. Peoples and Environments in the American West] (1)

This course explores the history of the trans–Mississippi West in the nineteenth century and its legacies in modern America. Themes include cultural conflict and accommodation; federal power and Western politics; and humans' negotiations with their environments. The course considers the history of the frontier as a process; the Western U.S. as a geographic place; and the legendary West and its functions in American mythology. Ms. Edwards.

Not offered in 2001/02.

369b. Themes in Twentieth Century Urban History: Social Reform and the Evolution of the Welfare State (1)

Examines the growth of labor reform, school reform, and social insurance, beginning with the Progressive Era through the New Deal, the war years after, to the Great Society and the present. Explores how the development of the welfare state affected Americans of different social, racial, ethnic backgrounds, and gender. Focuses on how these various groups acted to shape the evolution of the welfare state as well. Ms. Cohen.

Prerequisite: History 261 or 277 or 278; or by permission of instructor.

[373b. Slavery and Abolition in Africa] (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 373) The Trans–Saharan and the Atlantic slave trade transformed African communities, social structures, and cultures. The seminar explores the development, abolition, and impact of slavery in Africa from the earliest times to the twentieth century. The major conceptual and historiographical themes include indigenous servitude, female enslavement, family strategies, slave resistance, abolition, and culture. The seminar uses specific case studies as well as a comparative framework to understand slavery in Africa. Mr. Rashid.

Prerequisite: standard department prerequisite or by permission of instructor.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[374b. The African Diaspora and the Making of the Pan–African Movement, 1900–2000] (1)

(Same as African Studies 374) This seminar investigates the social origins, philosophical and cultural ideas, and the political forms of Pan–Africanism from the late nineteenth century to the end of the twentieth century. It explores how disaffection and resistance against slavery, racism, and colonial domination in the Americas, Caribbean, Europe, and Africa led to the development of a global movement for the emancipation of peoples of African descent from 1900 onwards. The seminar examines the different ideological, cultural, and organizational manifestations of Pan–Africanism as well as the scholarly debates on the development of the movement. Readings include the ideas and works of Edward Blyden, Alexander Crummell, W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Amy Garvey, C.L.R. James, and Kwame Nkrumah. Mr. Rashid.

Not offered in 2001/02.

377a. Rebels, Traitors, and Heretics: European Intellectuals in Their World, 1800–1900 (1)

The organizing idea for History 377 is the concept of the mal du siècle,brilliantly articulated by the romantics. A variety of cures offered by such intellectuals as Marx, Flaubert, and Nietzsche are examined. Mr. Schalk.

Prerequisite: standard department prerequisite or by permission of instructor.

378b. Rebels, Traitors, and Heretics: European Intellectuals in Their World Since 1900 (1)

Among the topics studied are intellectual generations, the psychoanalytic and existentialist movements, and periodic waves of engagement when intellectuals have descended from their ivory towers into the world of political and social actuality. Mr. Schalk.

Prerequisite: standard department prerequisite or by permission of instructor.

[385a. Europe's Outcasts: Outlaws, Heretics, and "Deviants," c. 1050–1550] (1)

This course examines what it meant to be "on the fringes" in medieval and Renaissance Europe. Once generally ignored by historians of this period, women, Jews, Muslims, "barbarians," prostitutes, gays, heretics, and criminals have become the object of many insightful studies. The overall goal of the course is to provide an understanding of the ways in which these marginal groups survived and even thrived in a seemingly intolerant society. Also, how did marginalized groups perceive their position, and how were they perceived by the mainstream? Ms. Bisaha.

Not offered in 2001/02.

399a or b. Senior Independent Work (1/2 or 1)

Permission required.