Professors: Colleen Ballerino Cohen (Chair), Judith L. Goldstein, Lucy Lewis JohnsonbAssociate Professors: Martha Kaplan, Anne Pike–TayaAssistant Professor: Thomas PorcellobMellon Postdoctoral Fellow in Visual Literacy: Mark Lipton.

The field of anthropology seeks to promote a holistic understanding of social life by offering complex accounts of human histories, societies and cultures. Anthropologists undertake ethnographic, archival, and archaeological research on the varied aspects of individual and collective experience in all time periods and parts of the world. The Department of Anthropology offers a wide range of options for majors and for nonmajors in recognition of the broad interdisciplinary nature of the field. Nonmajors from all classes may choose courses at any level with permission of the instructor and without introductory anthropology as a prerequisite.

Requirements for Concentration: 12 units including Anthropology 140, 201, 301, and two additional 300–level seminars. It is required that students take Anthropology 201 by the end of their junior year and highly recommended that they take it in their sophomore year. Anthropology 140 is a prerequisite or co–requisite for Anthropology 201. Students are required to take courses in at least three of the four fields of anthropology; those being archaeology, biological anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistics. Students are also required to achieve familiarity with the peoples and cultures of at least two areas of the world. This requirement can be met by taking any two courses in the range from Anthropology 235–244 or other courses by petition. The remaining courses are to be chosen from among the departmental offerings in consultation with the adviser, in order to give the student both a strong focus within anthropology and an overall understanding of the field. With the consent of the adviser, students may petition the department to take up to 2 of the 12 required units in courses outside the department which are related to their focus. Once a course plan has been devised, it must be approved by the department faculty.

NRO: One introductory course taken NRO may count towards the major if a letter grade is received. If a student receives a PA for an introductory course taken under the NRO option, that student must complete 13 courses for an anthropology major. No other required courses for the major may be taken NRO.

Requirements for a Correlate Sequence: 6 units to include 1 unit at the 100–level and 2 units at the 300–level. Courses should be chosen in consultation with an anthropology department adviser in order to a) complement the student's major and b) form a coherent focus within anthropology. Possible concentrations include cultural studies, field work, evolution, archaeology, language. One introductory course taken NRO may count towards the correlate sequence if a letter grade is received. If a student receives a PA for an introductory course taken under the NRO option, that student must complete seven courses for an anthropology correlate sequence. No other required courses for the correlate sequence may be taken NRO.

Recommendations: The field experience is essential to the discipline of anthropology. Therefore, majors are urged to take at least one fieldwork course, to engage in field research during the summer, and/or to undertake independent fieldwork under a JYA program.

Anthropological Research Experience: The department also offers students the opportunity for independent fieldwork/research projects through several of its courses and in conjunction with on–going faculty research projects. Opportunities for laboratory research, which is also critical to anthropological inquiry, are available in our archaeology, biological anthropology, sound analysis, and digital video editing labs.

Advisers: The department.

I. Introductory

100a. Archaeology (1)

Archaeologists study the material evidence of past human cultures. In this course students learn how archaeologists dig up physical remains, tools, and houses and use these data to reconstruct and understand past cultures. The methods and theory behind archaeological recovery, problem solving and interpretation are learned through the use of selected site reports, articles from all over the world, and hands on experimentation. The department.

120b. Human Origins (1)

This course introduces current and historical debates in the study of human evolution. Primate studies, genetics, the fossil record and paleoecology are drawn upon to address such issues as the origins of nature of human cognition, sexuality, and population variation. Ms. Pike–Tay.

140a or b. Cultural Anthropology (1)

An introduction to central concepts, methods, and findings in cultural anthropology, including culture, cultural difference, the interpretation of culture, and participant–observation. The course uses cross–cultural comparison to question scholarly and commonsense understandings of human nature. Topics may include sexuality, kinship, political and economic systems, myth, ritual and cosmology, and culturally varied ways of constructing race, gender, and ethnicity. Students undertake small research projects and explore different styles of ethnographic writing. Ms. Kaplan, Ms. Goldstein.

150a. Linguistics and Anthropology (1)

This course provides the student with a practical introduction to structuralist methods of linguistic analysis. There is a focus on both theoretical discussions about, and practical exercises in, the phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics of natural human languages. Additional topics include: the acquisition of linguistic and communicative competence; the relationship between human language and other animal communication systems; and cultural and social dimensions of language variation (including the study of regional and social dialects, code switching and mixing, speaking styles, registers, and idiolects). The course is intended both as the College's general introduction to formal linguistics and as a foundation for more advanced courses in related areas. Mr. Porcello.

181a. Caribbean Through Film (1)

This course provides an introductory survey of Caribbean societies through the medium of film. Supplemented by creative and ethnographic literatures, film screenings are designed to provoke analysis of differential forms of expression and representation, both indigenous and foreign in origin. Topics discussed include colonialism and neocolonialism, witchcraft and the supernatural, and issues of class, color and gender. Mr. Mantz. Two 75-minute meetings as well as film screenings.

II. Intermediate

201b. Anthropological Theory (1)

In this course we explore the history of intellectual innovations that make anthropology distinctive among the social sciences. We seek to achieve an analytic perspective on the history of the discipline and also to consider the social and political contexts, and consequences, of anthropology's theory. While the course is historical and chronological in organization, we read major theoretical and ethnographic works that form the background to debates and issues in contemporary anthropology. Ms. Kaplan.

Prerequisite or Co–requisite: Anthropology 140.

[212. World Musics] (1)

(Same as Music 212)

Not offered in 2001/02.

231a or b. Topics in Archaeology (1)

An examination of topics of interest in current archaeological analysis. We examine the anthropological reasons for such analyses, how analysis proceeds, what has been discovered to date through such analyses, and what the future of the topic seems to be. Possible topics include tools and human behavior, lithic technology, the archaeology of death, prehistoric settlement systems, origins of material culture.

May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

Topic for 2001/02a: Field Archaeology. (Same as American Culture 231a and Environmental Studies 231a) Designed to introduce basic techniques of archaeological fieldwork. The class includes, in addition to classroom instruction, the excavation of a local archaeological site. In 2001 we conduct our archaeological fieldwork at Matthew Vassar's estate, Springside. Ms. Johnson.

Prerequisite: Anthropology 297 or Anthropology 100.

Two 75–minute periods, plus 4 hour lab.

Topic for 2001/02b: The Archaeology of Death. Skeletal remains of past populations have been a focus of interest for physical anthropologists, archaeologists, and medical practitioners since the nineteenth century. This course introduces students to (1) biomedical archaeology: the study of health and disease, and the demographic, genetic, and environmental [natural, cultural and social] factors that affect a population's risk for specific diseases; (2) forensic anthropology: the study of identifying the dead and the cause of death; (3) paleopathology: the study of injury and disease in ancient skeletons; and (4) cross–cultural attitudes toward death, including such things as issues of grave goods and monuments, and controversies that arise between archaeologists and communities when the spiritual value of ancestral bones is pitted against their scientific value. Ms. Pike–Tay.

Prerequisite: Anthropology 100 or by permission of instructor.

[232a or b. Topics in Biological Anthropology] (1)

This course covers topics within the broad field of biological (or physical) anthropology ranging from evolutionary theory to the human fossil record to the identification of human skeletal remains from crime scenes and accidents. Bioanthropology conceptualizes cultural behavior as an integral part of our behavior as a species. Topics covered in this course may include human evolution, primate behavior, population genetics, human demography and variation, or forensic anthropology.

May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

Not offered in 2001/02.

235a. Area Studies in Prehistory (1)

Archaeology of Early African America 
This course serves as an introduction to the archaeology of early African-American sites and as an overview of the material evidence for life as an African in America, both enslaved and free. Topics covered include the history and development of African-American archaeology as a concentration of historical archaeology from the Civil Rights Movement to the present; its definitions and theoretical perspectives through time; the material remains of living conditions, status differences, dominance and resistance, and cultural expression; and power relations. Students gain a familiarity with the history of American slavery and the Triangle Trade, and with the archaeological manifestations of cultural contact, change, and exchange- in short, of the creation of an African-American culture; separate both from its African roots and American surroundings. Ms. Chan. Two 75-minute meetings.

May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

240a or b. Cultural Localities (1)

Detailed study of the cultures of people living in a particular area of the world, including their politics, economy, world view, religion, expressive practices, and historical transformations. Included is a critical assessment of different approaches to the study of culture. Areas covered vary from year to year and may include Europe, Africa, North America, and India. The Department.

May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

Topic for 2001/02b: Introduction to New World Historical Archaeology. This course serves as an introduction to the field of historical archaeology and gives an overview of the kinds of archaeological evidence used to reconstruct life in the Americas in the Colonial and Post-colonial periods. Topics covered are the intellectual history and development of historical archaeology as a sub-field or archaeology; the dominant theoretical perspectives that have defined and guided the discipline; earliest contact and settlement; the archaeology of groups; consumer behavior; historical archaeology in global perspective; and historical gardens and landscape. Students become familiar with the processes of colonization, creolization, ethnogenesis, and cultural development through the material remains found at American colonial and post-colonial sites. Ms. Chan

Additional topic for 2001/02b: Ethnography of China. (same as Asian Studies 240-52) This course introduces central aspects of Chinese culture and society, and considers two related anthropological issues: the relationship between continuity and change of social forms; and the ethnography of large, complex societies. Drawing on ethnographic studies, films, and other forms of cultural representation, we explore areas of Chinese social life, including kinship and family, gender identities and relations, communities and the state, religion and ideology, social categories and social mobility, as well as popular culture. This examination highlights cultural transformations in these areas as they are impacted by the implementation and dismantling of national sociopolitical agendas in modern Chinese history. While focusing primarily on mainland China, this course also investigates variations and connections in other Chinese communities and diasporas. Mr. Jing

Two 75–minute periods.

[241b. The Caribbean (1)]

An overview of the cultures of the Caribbean, tracing the impact of slavery and colonialism on contemporary experiences and expressions of Caribbean identity. Using ethnographies, historical accounts, literature, music, and film, the course explores the multiple meanings of 'Caribbean,' as described in historical travel accounts and contemporary tourist brochures, as experienced in daily social, political, and economic life, and as expressed through cultural events such as calypso contests and Festival and cultural–political movements such as rastafarianism. Although the course deals primarily with the English–speaking Caribbean, it also includes materials on the French and Spanish speaking Caribbean and on diasporic Caribbean communities in the U.S. and U.K. Ms. Cohen.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

Alternate years: Offered in 2001/02.

[242. The Frozen North] (1)

Characterized by extreme cold, a dearth of plants, and rich fauna on the land and in the seas, the polar and sub–polar regions called forth unique biological and cultural adaptations from their human inhabitants. This course concentrates on peoples of the far north, looking at the myriad adjustments in technology, material culture, social structure, and ideology necessary to survive and thrive in this extreme environment. It also examines the northern people's interactions with the Europeans who invaded the area over the past millennium. Ms. Johnson.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

Alternate years: Not offered in 2001/02.

243a. The Pacific (1)

An introduction to the cultures and histories of peoples of the Pacific, and to important anthropological issues that have resulted from research in the Pacific. Using historical and ethnographic documents and films, the course explores the variety of Pacific societies, from the chiefly kingdoms of Polynesia to the egalitarian societies of Papua New Guinea with some attention as well to Asian labor–diaspora communities in Hawaii and Fiji. The course analyzes the European cultural fascination with the "exotic" Pacific as well as Pacific islanders' own visions and versions of their history and goals in the encounter with European colonialism and Christianity, and in the post–colonial present. Ms. Kaplan.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

Alternate years: Offered in 2001/02.

245b. The Ethnographer's Craft (1)

(Same as Urban Studies 245) This course introduces students to the methods employed in constructing and analyzing ethnographic materials by combining readings, classroom lectures, and discussions with regular field exercises. Students gain experience in participant–observation, fieldnote–taking, interviewing, survey sampling, domain analysis, symbolic analysis, quantitative analysis, the use of archival documents and contemporary media in ethnographic work, and how to formulate field probleMs. Attention is also given to current concerns with interpretation and modes of representation. The department.

247a. Modern Social Theory: Marx, Durkheim, and Weber (1)

(Same as Sociology 247a)

250b. Language, Culture, and Society (1)

This course draws on a wide range of theoretical perspectives in exploring a particular problem, emphasizing the contribution of linguistics and linguistic anthropology to issues that bear on research in a number of disciplines. At issue in each selected course topic are the complex ways in which cultures, societies, and individuals are interrelated in the act of using language within and across particular speech communities.

May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

Topic for 2001/02b: Semiotics of the Body: Sex/Science/Culture. This course engages semiotic theory to analyze representations of the body in a variety of discourses. It examines the operation of explicit imagery within a complex web of attitudes and cultural practices. Ideologies of gender, the privatization of sexual activity, and the political uses of language are emphasized as influencing viewer–text interactions. Critical scholarship on the history of science and sex(ual construction) is utilized to investigate semiotic conventions deployed in speech about topics such as body politics, sexological imperatives, the cinematic body, erotic imagination, the proliferation of deviance, and intersecting structures on sex, gender, sexual orientation, race and class. This semester addresses: 1) linguistic and non–linguistic representations of sexualities in mainstream and subcultural imagery, including pornography; 2) medical surveillance of women and persons with AIDS; and 3) technological/semiotic constructions of the body, including cosmetic and sex–change surgery. Finally, the course considers how its selected film and video texts contribute to and/or resist dominant regulatory discourses. Mr. Lipton.

255a. Language and Gender (1)

This course focuses on language as a cultural means of communication. Gender is approached both as a grammatical category and as a social category of person linked to different kinds of language use. The course explores the way in which language use and ideologies about language use both inform and are informed by gender. The investigation of language and gender and of gender–related social movements are explored from a cross–cultural perspective. Mr. Porcello.

260b. Current Themes in Anthropological Theory and Method (1)

The focus is upon particular cultural sub–systems and their study in cross–cultural perspective. The sub–system selected varies from year to year. Examples include: kinship systems, political organizations, religious beliefs and practices, verbal and nonverbal communication.

May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

Topic for 2001/02b: Native Detectives: The Ethnographic Mystery in Context. The course studies detective fiction from its beginnings in the nineteenth century classical detective story to its most recent forms, focusing in particular on novels in which indigenous detectives solve mysteries through their knowledge of their cultures. We explore the detective genre and relevant ethnographies to place these stories in their historic, literary, and ethnographic contexts. An overarching theme of the course is the acquisition of knowledge in social science and in detective fiction. Ms. Goldstein.

[261. Culture, Power, History] (1)

This course examines the turn to historical questions in current anthropology. What are the implications of cultural difference for an understanding of history, and of history for an understanding of culture? Recent works which propose new ways of thinking about western and non–western peoples and the power to make history are read. Theoretical positions include structure and history, world system, hegemony and resistance, globalization theory, and discourse approaches. Historical/ ethnographic situations range from New Guinea cargo cults to the English industrial revolution, from the history of sugar as a commodity to the colonizing of Egypt, from debates about the sexuality of women and Hindu gods in Fiji to the role of spirit mediums in the struggle for Zimbabwe. Ms. Kaplan.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

Alternate years: Not offered in 2001/02.

[262. Anthropological Approaches to Myth, Ritual and Symbol] (1)

What is the place of myth, ritual and symbol in human social life? Do symbols reflect reality, or create it? This course considers answers to these questions in social theory (Marx, Freud and Durkheim) and in major anthropological approaches (functionalism, structuralism and symbolic anthropology). It then reviews current debates in interpretive anthropology about order and change, power and resistance, and the role of ritual in the making of history. Ethnographic studies include Fiji, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, sixteenth century Italy, the Seneca, and the U.S. Ms. Kaplan.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

Alternate years: Not offered in 2001/02.

263b. Anthropology Goes to the Movies: Film, Video, and Ethnography (1)

This course examines how film and video are used in ethnography as tools for study and as means of ethnographic documentary and representation. Topics covered include history and theory of visual anthropology, issues of representation and audience, indigenous film, and contemporary ethnographic approaches to popular media. Ms. Cohen.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or Film or by permission of instructor.

Two 75–minute class periods, plus 3–hour preview lab.

[264a. Anthropology of Art] (1)

This course develops a cultural framework for the investigation of artistic expression drawing upon anthropological approaches, semiotics and aesthetics to examine art and culture. Topics such as the origins of art and symbolic expression in human prehistory; Western representations of non–Western art; connoisseurship; the market economy; and the categories of "fine art," "tourist art," and "graffiti art" are addressed. Ms. Pike–Tay.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[265. Soundscapes: Anthropology of Music] (1)

This course investigates a series of questions about the relationship between music and the individuals and societies that perform and listen to it. In other words, music is examined and appreciated as a form of human expression existing within and across specific cultural contexts. How does music create and express social identity, value, and difference? How is music used to include or exclude individuals from group membership? How is group solidaritystylistic, ethnic, nationalisticlinked to patterns of musical production and consumption? How do we make sense of our lives through making, and listening to music? Where do musicians draw their creativity from? How do we listen? Why do we perform? The course takes an interdisciplinary approach to the social life of music, addressing historical themes and debates within multiple academic fields (anthropology, ethnomusicology, sociology, linguistics, philosophical aesthetics, cultural and media studies) via readings, recordings, and filMs. Mr. Porcello.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

Not offered in 2001/02.

290a or b. Field Work (1/2 or 1)

Individual or group field projects or internships. May be elected during the college year or during the summer. Open to all students. The department.

297a or b. Reading Course in Archaeological Field Methods (1/2)

Ms. Johnson.

298a or b. Independent Work (1/2 or 1)

Individual or group project of reading or research. May be elected during the college year or during the summer. The department.

III. Advanced

300a or b. Senior Thesis (1)

The department.

301a. Senior Seminar (1)

A close examination of current theory in anthropology, oriented around a topic of general interest, such as history and anthropology, the writing of ethnography, or the theory of practice. Students write a substantial paper applying one or more of the theories discussed in class. Readings change from year to year. Ms. Goldstein.

305a. Topics in Advanced Biological Anthropology (1)

An examination of such topics as primate structure and behavior, the Plio–Pleistocene hominids, the final evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens,forensic anthropology, and human biological diversity.

May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

Prerequisite: Anthropology 232 or by permission of the instructor.

Topic for 2001/02a: The Plio–Pleistocene Hominids. At some point during the Pliocene Epoch, the hominoids split into branches which became today's humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. We begin by examining the early hominoids and the paleoecological and behavioral factors which influenced this evolutionary event and then move to examining the subsequent evolutionary path of the hominids. Major focus is on the australopithecines and early hominines, the theoretical and political bases and ramifications of various taxonomic schemes and the technicalities of hominid phylogeny. Ms. Johnson.

331b. Seminar in Archaeological Method and Theory (1)

The theoretical underpinnings of anthropological archaeology and the use of theory in studying particular bodies of data. The focus ranges from examination of published datacovering topics such as architecture and society, the origin of complex society, the relationship between technology and ecologyto more laboratory–oriented examination of such topics as archaeometry, archaeozoology, or lithic technology.

Prerequisites: 200–level work in archaeology or by permission of instructor.

May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

Topic for 2001/02b: Archaeozoology. This course reviews the methods and techniques used to analyze faunal evidence from archaeological sites. It focuses on the importance of animal bones for assessing prehistoric human subsistence strategies, including the social and technological aspects of hunting, scavenging, and animal domestication. Topics include faunal identification, techniques for assessing age and sex of skeletal remains, taphonomy, and the contribution of faunal analysis to studies of humanly–induced animal extinctions, settlement patterns, trade, social status, and ethnicity. Ms. PikeTay.

Additional topic for 2001/02b:Critical Readings form a Post-Modernist Perspective. We explore various aspects of contemporary theory in archaeology while surveying the developments of archaeological method, theory and practice in the 20th century. The course focuses in particular on the post-modernist critiques of the discipline that have arisen in the last twenty years. We look at material that is often new and controversial because it challenges the status quo and more recent developments. By engaging in constructive criticism of the readings, students develop and refine their own perspectives. The course culminates in a round-robin review and critique of research proposals developed over the semester by the seminar participants. Ms. Chan

One 3–hour period.

350a. Language and Expressive Culture (1)

This seminar provides the advanced student with an intensive investigation of theoretical and practical problems in specific areas of research that relate language and linguistics to expressive activity. Although emphasizing linguistic modes of analysis and argumentation, the course is situated at the intersection of important intellectual crosscurrents in the arts, humanities, and social sciences that focus on how culture is produced and projected through not only verbal, but also musical, material, kinaesthetic, and dramatic arts. Each topic culminates in independent research projects. Mr. Porcello.

May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in linguistics or by permission of instructor.

Topic for 2001/02a: Language, Discourse, Music. This course considers an ethnographically discourse–centered approach to the intersection of language and music in various styles and genres from disparate parts of the world. The course highlights problems concerning speech/song boundaries, including the role of musical parameters (such as prosody, intonation, pitch, meter) in verbal arts such as preaching, oratory, poetics; and the role of language in song, chant, ritual wailing, rap, and other composed and improvised genres. Additional subjects of inquiry include media discourses about music, musical semiosis, and linguistic and musical cognitive processes.

360b. Problems in Cultural Analysis (1)

(Same as Geography 360) Covers a variety of current issues in modem anthropology in terms of ongoing discussion among scholars of diverse opinions rather than a rigid body of fact and theory.

May be repeated for credit if topic has changed.

Prerequisites: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

Topic for 2001/02b: Asian Diasporas. Focusing on Asian diasporas, this course engages the current surge of interest in diaspora studies from both anthropological and geographical perspectives. Attention is given to issues of colonial and post colonial struggles, formation and transformation of ethnic identities, roles of middlemen minorities, and nationalism and transnationalism of Asian diasporas. The principal cases are drawn from East Asian and South Asian communities in Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the U.S. Ms.  Kaplan, Ms. Zhou.

361b. Consumer Culture (1)

An examination of classic and recent work on the culture of consumption. Among the topics we study are gender and consumption, the creation of value, commodity fetishism, the history of the department store, and the effect of Western goods on non–Western societies. Ms. Goldstein.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

[362b. Male and Female in Anthropological Perspective] (1)

The course begins with an overview of the position of men and women according to recent anthropological theory, and in so doing examines how including women affects mainstream anthropological theory. The course compares the classification of sex differences and images of men and women with their social roles. Representations of women in popular culture are studied.

Not offered in 2001/02.

[363. Nations, Globalization, and Post–Coloniality] (1)

How do conditions of globalization and dilemmas of post–coloniality challenge the nation–state? Do they also reinforce and reinvent it? This course engages three related topics and literatures; recent anthropology of the nation–state; the anthropology of colonial and post–colonial societies; and the anthropology of global institutions and global flows. Ms. Kaplan.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

Not offered in 2001/02.

364a. Tourism (1)

Recreational travel to distant places to experience other cultures is becoming big business as tourism achieves the status of one of the leading growth industries world–wide. This course explores this trend, emphasizing the history of tourism, the role played by and the impact of tourism in the process of development, the relationship between tourism and constructions of national and cultural identities and negotiations for power, and the concept "tourist" as it applies to the experience of recreational travelers and ethnographic study and representation alike. Students use ethnographic case studies, novels, essays, historical travel journals, travel brochures, advertisements, and personal narratives, to prepare in–depth analyses and accounts of tourism. Ms. Cohen.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

387 Reciprocity (1)

This course explores the relationship between things and people in different cultures, focusing on social interactions and relations generated and defined by the giving and receiving of gifts. The strong connection established in classic anthropology between types of exchange and types of social formation are interrogated by examining recent ethnographic studies of the persistence and permutations of gift exchange in a number of rapidly changing contemporary societies, as well as in various local contexts of globalization. Among the topics we study are gifts and commodities; cultural, moral and political discourses on "corruption" and "bribery;" gift exchange and gender identities; and relations between economic and symbolic values in different arenas of social life. The department.

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

One 3–hour period.

388 Voodoo Economics (1)

The discipline and practice of Western economies is analyzed from the standpoint of non-Western perspectives, both in a metaphorical and culturally real sense. In the initial weeks, we examine how economies, and their modalities of progress, accumulation, and development, emerged in conjunction with a culturally specific philosophical orientation and worldview. Shifting our scrutiny to the power of that value system and its institutional pervasiveness, we examine ways in which capitalist exchange, money lending, accumulation, development, etc. have been interpreted in non-Western rationalities as practices that are supernatural, occult, Satanic, or otherwise incommensurable with locally defined moralities. By centering our investigation within the context of non-Western social and economy discourses, this course suggests that such phenomena as witchcraft, cannibalism, cults, and the global market for body parts can be understood not as oppositional to Western conceptions of civility and progress, but as culturally and historically specific struggles to rationalize foreign economic ideas and practices into local philosophical frameworks. Mr. Mantz

Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.

One 3–hour period.

399a or b. Senior Independent Work (1/2 or 1)

Individual or group project of reading or research. May be elected during the college year or during the summer. The department.