Professors: Miriam Cohena, James H. Merrell, David L. Schalk (Acting Chair), Anthony S. Wohl; Associate Professors: Robert Brigham, Leslie Offutt; Assistant Professors: Nancy Bisaha, Mita Choudhury, Rebecca Edwards, Maria Höhn, Jin Jiang, Ismail Rashid.

Absent on leave, first semester.

Requirements for Concentration: 11 units, to include the following courses above the introductory level: 1 unit in European history; 1 unit in United States history; 1 unit in Asian, African, or Latin American history; 1 unit pre-1700 history chosen from among: 215, 221, 225, 234, 259, 262, 271, 274, 315, 331

For all juniors in residence: History 202 (Thesis Preparation).

Senior-Year Requirement: History 300 (Thesis) No cross-listed courses originating in another department may be used for distribution requirement. No more than two cross-listed courses originating in another department can count toward the history minimum requirement of 11 units.

Recommendations: reading knowledge of at least one foreign language. Students planning to go on to graduate school should find out which language examinations are required for advanced degrees.

Advisers: The department.

Correlate Sequence in History Requirements: no fewer than 6 units in history, normally taken at Vassar. Ordinarily, this will include one course at the introductory level, at least three at the intermediate level, and at least one course at the advanced level. AP credit will not be accepted for the correlate sequence. No more than one (1) History course counted toward the correlate may be taken NRO.

Students should apply to the Adviser of Correlate Sequence in their sophomore or junior year after discussing their plans with their major advisers. No correlate sequence can be declared after the beginning of the senior year. The courses selected for the sequence should form a coherent course of study. The list of the courses proposed and a brief written proposal articulating the focus of the sequence must be submitted to the correlate sequence adviser for approval prior to declaration.

I. Introductory

In format, these are period courses. Their purpose is to provide a general understanding of historical thinking: what subjects historians are interested in and why; their variety; how historians argue their case; what terms they use; what conclusions they reach. Besides providing basic information, these courses include the study of historical methods and schools of interpretations of, and approaches to, history and incorporate exercises in drawing up historical propositions (note topics and/or term papers and examination essays).

[115a. Jews, Christians, and Muslims in the Middle Ages] (1)

This course examines how religion and ethnicity affected both the individual and society as a whole in the Middle Ages. It begins with a brief look at the beliefs, practices, and cultures of Jews, Christians, and Muslims. The bulk of the course focuses on interactions among the groups, ranging from peaceful contacts like trade and intellectual exchanges to full-scale conflict in the form of crusades, jihad, and pogroms. Ms. Bisaha.

Not offered in 1999/00.

121a or b. Modern Europe, from the Fall of Napoleon to the Present (1)

This course is designed to introduce students both to European history from the fall of Napoleon in 1815 to the present, and to the way historians have interpreted this period. Although our main focus is the major political events of this periodthe rise and fall of European powers and the changing map of Europewe also look beneath the political stage at social, economic, and intellectual development. The department.

History 121.01 and .02 in a-semester fulfill the Freshman Course Requirement. They are open to freshmen only.

Other sections are open to all classes.

122a. Paris and London: Society and Culture in the Early Modern City, 1500-1800 (1)

(Formerly 182) During this period, cities were the most dynamic sector of early modern society. Unlike rural areas which tended to change slowly, urban centers like Paris and London changed rapidly, therefore challenging traditional notions of social and political stability. Topics for discussion include: the impact of migration and population growth, the concentration of political power in urban centers, cities and national economies, cities as intellectual and cultural capitals, and the tensions between elite and popular segments of urban society. Ms. Choudhury.

History 122.01 in a-semester fulfills the Freshman Course requirement. It is open to freshmen only.

Section .02 is open to all classes.

130a. English History: Pre-Norman Conquest to the Death of Elizabeth I (1603)(1)

English society, government, art, and literature with special emphasis on feudalism, manorialism, Magna Carta, the conflict between church and state, the growth of the city, and the development of royal justice and Parliament. The historian's craft and the close analysis of a variety of original texts are an integral part of the course. Mr. Wohl.

141a. Tradition, History and the African Experience (1)

(Formerly 184) (Same as Africana Studies 141) From ancient stone tools and monuments to oral narratives and colonial documents, the course examines how the African past has been recorded, preserved and transmitted over the generations. It looks at the challenges faced by the historian in Africa and the multi-disciplinary techniques used to reconstruct and interpret African history. Various texts, artifacts and oral narratives from ancient times to the present will be analyzed to see how conceptions and interpretations of the African past have changed over time. Mr. Rashid.

151b. English History: James I (1603) to the Present (1)

English society, government, art, and literature with special emphasis on seventeenth century social, religious, and scientific thought and political revolution; eighteenth century social and constitutional customs; nineteenth century urban and industrial growth and the attendant social and political consequences. The historian's craft and the close analysis of a variety of original texts are an integral part of the course. Mr. Wohl.

History 151.51 in b-semester fulfills the Freshman Course Requirement. It is open to freshmen only.

Section .52 is open to all classes.

160a or b. Introduction to the American Experience (1)

This course explores some of the central themes in American history, from the European arrival in America to the end of the twentieth century. While the organization is roughly chronological, the course is not a survey. Rather, it focuses on selected events, people, and texts that illuminate America's past. Topics include racial and ethnic relations, gender roles, the paradox of class formation in a "classless" society, and the process of nation building. The department.

162b. Latin America: The Aftermath of Encounter (1)

This course adopts a thematic approach to the development of Latin American societies, treating such issues as cultural contact and the development of strategies of survival, the development and regional distribution of African slavery, the quest for national identity in the early nineteenth century, the impact of United States imperialism in Latin America, and the revolutionary struggles of the twentieth century. As an introductory course both to the discipline and to multidisciplinary studies, it draws, among other sources, on chronicles (both European and indigenous), travelers' accounts, testimonial literature, and literary treatments to provide the student a broad-based preparation for more advanced study of the region. Ms. Offutt.

167a. Harvest: Land, Labor, and Natural Resources in American History (1)

This course examines the use of certain North American resources by humans seeking food, shelter, warmth, and the more intangible goals of civilization and progress. Students consider a series of historical frontiers in which natural environments and systems of labor and capital have intersected in specific ways. Case studies include the Grand Banks cod fishery; land-use conflicts between American Indians and European Americans; the lumbering industry; the Dust Bowl on the Great Plains; and the creation and use of national forests. While some attention is paid to the origins of environmentalism, primary emphasis is on patterns of labor and consumption as they have influenced-and been influenced by-the environment itself. Ms. Edwards.

II. Intermediate

The prerequisite for courses at the 200-level is 1 unit in history.

202b. Thesis Preparation (1/2)

The department.

For second-semester juniors only.

215a. Medieval Civilization (1)

The emergence and evolution of a distinctive medieval civilization from the Germanic, Roman, and Christian cultures of late antiquity; ideas, institutions, and movements from the fourth to the thirteenth centuries. Ms. Bisaha.

216a. The Formation of Greek Culture: Greece from the Bronze Age Through the Persian Wars (1)

(Same as Classics 216) Mr. Lott.

[217a. Democracy and Imperialism: Athenian Democracy, The Peloponnesian Wars and the Aftermath] (1)

(Same as Classics 217) Mr. Lott.

Not offered in 1999/00.

218b. Republican Rome (1)

(Same as Classics 218) Mr. Lott.

[219b. The Roman Empire: From Julio-Claudian Era Through the Fall] (1)

(Same as Classics 219) Mr. Lott.

Not offered in 1999/00.

[222a. Modern China, 1800-1949] (1)

(Formerly 281) Surveys the major trends of political and social change in China in the 19th and 20th centuries. The course follows a narrative of changes, starting with a China-centered worldview, through the crises of the empire, to reforms and revolutions that shaped today's Chinese world. Ms. Jiang

223a. Contemporary China, 1945-Present (1)

(Formerly 283) Mao Zedong's idea of "continuous revolution," which manifested in the Cultural Revolution, had influenced not only the Chinese lives but also the leftist movements worldwide in the middle of the Cold War. Assessing the achievements and losses of Chinese society under Mao's leadership, this course first surveys the political, intellectual, social, and economic aspects from the founding of the PRC to the end of the Cultural Revolution. It then examines the nature of change in the post-Mao era, the promise and problems of economic reform, and how Mao's legacy and economic reform are reshaping contemporary Chinese identities. Class materials include primary documents and movies. Ms Jiang.

[224b. Modern Japan, 1860-1980s] (1)

Taking a Japan-centered approach, this course searches for an internal logic of change behind the transformation of Japan from a feudal society to a modern economic power, while examining American perceptions of Japan as well as Japan's relations with its neighboring Asian nations, especially China and Korea. Class materials include primary documents and movies. Ms. Jiang.

Not offered in 1999/00.

225a. Renaissance Europe c.1300-c.1525 (1)

A study of the forces of continuity and innovationsocial, political, and cultural in Western society from the age of Dante to that of Erasmus and More; consideration of the ideas of "rebirth" and "reform" as they affected religion, philosophy, learning, and the arts. Ms. Bisaha.

229b. History of India (1)

This course looks at Indian history from antiquity to the twentieth century. Among the topics covered are the changing nature of Hinduism, the evolution of caste, divisions between Hindus and Muslims, imperialism and Indian nation building. Special attention is given to the Mughal empire, the presence of the British, and the challenges India has faced after independence. Ms. Choudhury.

[230b. The Old Regime and the French Revolution] (1)

Eighteenth-century France was a society in transition, a society in which social and cultural ideals and realities were increasingly at odds. The tensions within society and the state finally erupted into the cataclysmic French Revolution which paved the way for modern political life. Using primary and secondary sources, this course focuses on topics such as the social structure of the Old Regime, the Enlightenment and the volatile political climate preceding the revolution. We examine different interpretations of what caused the French Revolution as well as the dynamics of the Revolution itself between 1789 and 1799. Ms. Choudhury.

Not offered in 1999/00.

[231a. The Enlightenment: Sense and Sensibility] (1)

This course looks at eighteenth century European intellectual and cultural life not only as the Age of Reason but also the Age of Feeling. Beginning with John Locke and concluding with Kant and the Marquis de Sade, we study the Enlightenment as a complex movement that focused on both the intellect and the emotions. We conclude by examining how these twin strands of the Enlightenment, sense and sensibility, were a significant aspect of the political ideology of the French Revolution. Ms. Choudhury.

Not offered in 1999/00.

[234b. The Age of Power: Europe in the Seventeenth Century] (1)

A comparative study of continental absolutism in France (Richelieu, Louis XIV), Prussia (Great Elector), and Russia (Peter the Great), and representative government in the England of the Stuarts and Cromwell. Themes include: the decline of the old empires and the rise of the modern state (including Holland); capitalist expansion and the rise of the bourgeoisie; science and witchcraft, puritanism, and the development of rationalism and secularism in an age of faith. Mr. Wohl.

Not offered in 1999/00.

[236a. Germany, 1740-1914] (1)

This course covers the history of the German lands from 1740 to the eve of World War I. Aside from providing a chronological political narrative, assigned readings focus in greater detail on a number of themes to illuminate the specific character of German history. Topics include: the demise of the universalist idea of the Holy Roman Empire; the German Enlightenment and the legacy of enlightened absolutism on state/society relations; the impact of the Napoleonic revolution; the failures of 1848; the Prussian-led unification; the legacy of Bismarck's domestic policies on German political culture and social life; Wilhelmine "Weltpolitik." Ms. Höhn.

Not offered in 1999/00.

237b. Germany, 1890-1990 (1)

This course covers German History from 1890 to the 1990 unification that ended the post­World War II split of German society into East and West. Aside from familiarizing you with a narrative of German political, social and cultural history, the readings also explore some of the so-called "peculiarities" of German history. Did Bismarck's unification from above and the pseudo-constitutional character of the Second Reich create a political culture that set the country on a Sonderweg (special path) of modernization ending in the catastrophe of Auschwitz? Why did Weimar, Germany's first experiment with democracy fail and why is Bonn not Weimar? Finally, what road will the new Germany take within Europe and the world? Ms. Höhn.

[238a. France, 1815-1940] (1)

French history from the fall of Napoleon through the crisis at the turn of the twentieth century represented by the Dreyfus Affair to the end of the Third Republic. In addition to more traditional political, military, and diplomatic topics, social and cultural themes are examined. Mr. Schalk.

Not offered in 1999/00.

[239b. Collapse of Empire and Rebirth of a Nation, France Since 1940] (1)

French history from the "Strange Defeat" of May-June 1940 to the "Strange Victory" of François Mitterrand and the Socialist Party in May-June 1981, and beyond. Special attention is paid to the extended and painful process of decolonization, including close study of France's own war in Vietnam, 1946-54, and the "War Without a Name," Algeria, 1954-62. Mr. Schalk.

Not offered in 1999/00.

[240a. The Black Diaspora: Africana-Caribbeans: and Their History] (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 240) Instructor to be announced.

Not offered in 1999/00.

243b. The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union (1)

The Bolshevik leaders of the first socialist state in the world declared that they were freeing Russia from backwardness and building a prosperous, egalitarian Communist society and even a New Soviet Man and Woman. How well did they succeed? To what extent were Marxist ideals and programs distorted by Russia's economic and political backwardness? Traces political, economic, social, and cultural developments of the Soviet period, with particular emphasis on the crucial years of Stalin's rule and on the difficulties of reforming the system in the present day. Instructor to be announced.

245a. Imperial Russia (1)

This course introduces major events and issues in the history of that multi-ethnic empire during the Romanov Dynasty (1689-1917). Why did autocratic rule last so long in Russia and what led to its collapse? Using memoirs, ethnographic accounts, and literary works, and drawing on new ways of seeing the imperial experience, we explore not only sources of conflict, but points of contact, encounters, and intersections of state and social institutions.

[246a. Jewish Politics and Religion in the Ancient World] (1)

(Same as Religion 246) Ms. Amaru.

Not offered in 1999/00.

[248a. Jews and Judaism in the Modern World] (1)

(Same as Religion 248) Ms. Moore.

Not offered in 1999/00.

249a. The Modern Jewish Experience (1)

(Same as Religion 249) Ms. Moore.

251a. A History of American Foreign Relations (1)

An historical analysis of the foreign relations of the United States, emphasizing the social, economic, and ideological forces involved in the formulation of foreign policy. Major topics include: the City Upon a Hill; manifest destiny; a continental empire, the Open Door; the struggle between isolationism and internationalism; American entry into the World Wars; the origins of the Cold War; the Korean and Viet Nam War; and detente. Mr. Brigham.

254a. Victorian England (1)

A study of life, politics, thought, and institutions in an age of rapid transition and intellectual doubt, with an emphasis upon the development of the capitalist bourgeois ethos and the growth of the Victorian social conscience, both secular and religious. Mr. Wohl.

257a. Justice (1)

An attempt to uncover certain realities of contemporary history through a study of great trials. A major theme will be the distinction between moral and legal justice as it resolves into the conflict between Justice and raison d'etat. Topics include the Dreyfus Affair, the Sacco-Vanzetti Trial, the Burning of the Reichstag, the Moscow Purge Trials, Nuremberg, the Alger Hiss Trials, the Rosenberg Case, the McCarthy Hearings, Eichmann, the trials of Jack Ruby, the "Chicago Seven," the "Catonsville Nine," Lieutenant William Calley, and others. Mr. Schalk.

259b. Men, Women, and Children: The History of the Family in Early Modern Europe (1)

This course examines the changing notions of family, marriage and childhood between 1500 and 1800, and their ties to the larger early modern context. During this period, Europeans came to see the family less as a network of social and political relationships and more as a set of bonds based on intimacy and affection. Major topics include: family and politics in the Italian city-state, the reformation and witchcraft, absolutism and paternal authority, and the increasing importance of the idea of the nuclear family. Ms. Choudhury.

260b. Women in the United States to 1890 (1)

An examination of women's social, economic, and political roles in colonial America and the eighteenth and nineteenth century U.S. The course emphasizes varieties of experience based on race, ethnicity, class, and geographical region. Major issues include the household and other workplaces, changes in society and family life, slavery and emancipation, and women's growing influence in public affairs from the Revolution to the Gilded Age. Ms. Edwards.

261b. History of Women in the United States Since 1890 (1)

Traces the changes in female employment patterns, how women combined work and family responsibilities, how changes in work and family affected women's leisure lives from the late nineteenth century through the development of postindustrial America. The course also explores the women's rights movements of the twentieth century, and how class, race, and ethnicity combined with gender to shape women's lives. Ms. Cohen.

[262a. Early Latin America to 1750] (1)

This course examines the pre-Columbian worlds of Mesoamerica and the Andean region, then turns to a treatment of the consequences of contact between those worlds and the European. Special emphasis is placed on the examination of mindsets and motives of colonizer and colonized and the quest for identity in the American context (both issues intimately related to questions of race and ethnicity), the struggle to balance concerns for social justice against the search for profits, the evolution of systems of labor appropriation, the expansion of the mining sector, and the changing nature of land exploitation and tenure. Ms. Offutt.

Not offered in 1999/00.

263a. From Colony to Nation: Latin America in the Nineteenth Century (1)

This course treats the transition from colony to nation in Spanish and Portuguese America. In part a thematic course, treating such topics as the Liberal/Conservative struggles of the early century, the consequences of latifundism, the abolition of slavery, and the impact of foreign economic penetration and industrialization, it also adopts a national approach, examining the particular historical experiences of selected nations. Ms. Offutt.

264b. The Revolutionary Option? Latin America in the Twentieth Century (1)

This course investigates why certain Latin American nations in the twentieth century opt for revolution and others adopt a more conservative course. It examines the efforts of selected Latin American nations (Mexico, Cuba, Chile, Nicaragua, Guatemala) to address the tremendous social and economic cleavages affecting them, with special attention paid to material, political, class and cultural structures shaping their experiences. Ms. Offutt.

Not open to those who have taken History 263 prior to fall 1999.

271a. Perspectives on the African Past: Africa Before 1800 (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 271) A thematic survey of African civilizations and societies from antiquity to 1800. The course examines how demographic and technological changes, warfare, religion, trade and external relations shaped the evolution of the Nile Valley civilizations, the East African city-states, the Empires of the Western Sudan and the Forest Kingdoms of West Africa. Some attention is devoted to the consequences of the Atlantic Slave trade which developed from Europe's contact with Africa from the fifteenth century onwards. Mr. Rashid.

272b. Modern African History (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 272) A study of the major political, economic, social, and intellectual developments in the unfolding of the African experience from the early nineteenth century to the present time. Attention is directed to the broad spectrum of contacts of Africa with the outside world in trade, diplomacy, etc., prior to the advent of full-scale European imperialism and colonialism in the late nineteenth century. The course focuses on the rise of the Pan-African movement, African nationalism, the decolonization process, the emergence of independent African states, and the dilemmas of postcolonialism: neocolonialism, development issues, and post-independence politics. Mr. Rashid.

274a. Colonial America, 1500-1750 (1)

The changing world colonial AmericansEuropean, African, and Indianfashioned for themselves and bequeathed to us: their migrations, their religions, their social values and social structures, their political culture, and their rebellions. Mr. Merrell.

275b. Revolutionary America, 1750-1830 (1)

The causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution. Themes include how thirteen disparate colonies came to challenge, and defeat, Great Britain; the social effects of the War for Independence; the creation of republican governments; the search for stability at home and security abroad; the development of national identity; and the experience of those Americans excluded from the phrase "All Men are Created Equal." Mr. Merrell.

276a. House Divided: The U.S., 1830-1890 (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 276) Beginning with regional economies and social changes in the antebellum years, this course examines the causes and conduct of the Civil War and the aftermath of that conflict in the Gilded Age. Special emphasis is given to slavery and post-Emancipation race relations, conquest of the American West, and the rise of an American industrial order. Ms. Edwards.

[277a. The Making of the "American Century": 1890-1945] (1)

Focuses on major social, political, and cultural developments during the decades when the United States emerged as the preeminent industrial power. The changes in the social and political institutions which emerged out of the crises of the 1890s, the Great Depression, and World War II. The growth of mass consumption and mass leisure in this very diverse society. Ms. Cohen.

Not offered in 1999/00.

278b. Cold War America: The United States Since 1945 (1)

An examination of the political, social, economic, and cultural changes in the United States since 1945. Major topics include: McCarthyism; suburbanization; the Civil Rights Movements; the Kennedy Years; the war in Viet Nam; the anti-war protest; and the growing nuclear threat. Mr. Brigham.

290. Field Work (1/2 or 1)

Individual or group field projects, especially in local, state, or federal history. May be taken either semester or in summer. The department.

Prerequisite or corequisite: an appropriate course in the department. Permission required.

298a or b. Independent Work (1/2 or 1)

Permission required.

III. Advanced

Prerequisite for all advanced courses: 2 units of 200-level work. Specific prerequisites assume the general prerequisite.

300a. Senior Thesis (1 or 2)

315b. The Crusades (1)

The Crusades stand as one of the most intriguing, yet misunderstood, phenomena of the medieval period. This course examines the religious and cultural origins of the Crusade movement, campaigns and political developments, and the impact of the Crusades on relations between Christians and Muslims. This course primarily focuses on the Holy Land, but some time is also devoted to the Spanish Reconquista, the decline of Byzantium, and the rise of the Ottoman Turks. Ms. Bisaha.

Prerequisite: History 215 or by permission of instructor.

323b. Remembrance of War and Modern East Asian Nations (1)

This seminar looks at the ways WWII is remembered in China, Japan, and Korea, and how the events of the War help define national identities and shape regional politics, as well as international relations in the Pacific Rim, in which the U.S. is deeply involved. The course develops around a few case studies, including the Tokyo trial and the beginning of the Cold War in Asia, the textbook controversy, the tearing down of the colonial building in Korea in the early 1990s, and the controversy around the 1997 bestseller The Rape of Nanking. Ms. Jiang.

Prerequisite: one of the following courses: Modern China, Contemporary China, Modern Japan, or by permission of instructor.

[328a. The Sacred and the Profane in Europe: From Reformation to Revolution](1)

Many historians have argued that early modern Europe witnessed a fundamental transformation from a deeply religious society to a secular one. This course examines and challenges the assumptions underlying such description. It also investigates the theoretical issues raised by efforts to integrate religious experience with more general historical analysis, focusing our attention on the works of recent historians. Topics include: religion and the early modern state, popular and elite religious practices, religion and gender, religion and the emergence of science, and anticlericalism and the Church. Ms. Choudhury.

Not offered in 1999/00.

331a. Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe (1)

This course examines the history of European women from 1500 to 1789. We look at the life cycles of early modern women, taking into account the differences resulting from class, nationality, and ethnicity. In addition to surveying the fabric of European women's lives in this period, we also examine how men regarded women, and how gender relations shaped early modern notions of society and power. Ms. Choudhury.

[336b. Americanization in Europe] (1)

This seminar examines the worldwide phenomenon of "Americanization" as it manifested itself in Europe throughout the twentieth century. The class explores whether the term "Americanization" is a helpful and appropriate one by studying a number of European countries. The first part of the seminar focuses on how Europeans envisioned America in the early decades of the century. We examine how the differing national debates around "America" and "Americanization" can provide insights into a country's path into modernity. The second part of this seminar focuses on the years after WWII when the American influence in Europe became ever more pronounced. The special case of Germany is acknowledged by studying the de-Nazification and democratization efforts of the American military government. We also explore the American predominance in popular culture and its effect on European youth culture in both Eastern and Western Europe. Ms. Höhn.

Not offered in 1999/00.

337b. The Rise and Fall of Nazi Germany (1)

This course explores the Third Reich by locating it within the peculiar nature of German political culture resulting from late unification and rapid industrialization. Readings explore how and why the Nazis emerged as a mass party during the troubled Weimar years. The years between 1933-1945 are treated by focusing on Nazi domestic, foreign and racial policies. Ms. Höhn.

Prerequisite: one of the following: History 236, 237; or permission of instructor.

[351a. The Viet Nam War] (1)

An examination of the origins, course, and impact of America's involvement in Viet Nam, emphasizing the evolution of American diplomacy, the formulation of military strategy, the domestic impact of the war, and the perspective of Vietnamese revolutionaries. Mr. Brigham.

Not offered in 1999/00.

354b. Victorian London: A Test Case in Urban History (1)

An interdisciplinary approach to the study of both urbanization and urbanity in the prototype megalopolis during the period of its greatest growth. Interaction at all levels (cultural, aesthetic, architectural, social, economic, religious, political) between people and the city; social and political responses to demographic challenges; the slums, philanthropy; municipal socialism; literary and dramatic perceptions; the position of women; immigrant groups; casual labor; prostitution; crime and punishment; and the quality of life. Mr. Wohl.

361a. Varieties of the Latin American Indian Experience (1)

This course treats the Indian world of Latin America as it responded to increased European penetration in the post-1500 period. Focusing primarily on Mesoamerica and the Andean region, it examines the variety of ways indigenous peoples dealt with cultural dislocation associated with the imposition of colonial systems and the introduction of the modern state. The course treats as well the Indian policies of the state, and how those policies reflected assumptions about the role of indigenous peoples in the larger society. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the process of negotiation of identitywhat it meant to be Indian in an increasingly European society, and how the interpenetration of the two worlds, and the response of one to the other, reshaped each world. Ms. Offutt.

[363b. Revolution and Conflict in Twentieth-Century Latin America] (1)

(Formerly 386) (Same as Latin American Studies 363) Revolution has been a dominant theme in the history of Latin America since 1910. This course examines the revolutionary experiences of three nations: Mexico, Cuba, and Nicaragua. It examines theories of revolution, then assesses the revolutions themselvesthe conditions out of which each revolution developed, the conflicting ideologies at play, the nature of the struggles, and the postrevolutionary societies that emerged from the struggles.

Prerequisite: by special permission of instructor.

Not offered in 1999/00.

[365a. The Nineteenth Century South] (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 365) This seminar explores the politics, economy, society, and culture of the U.S. South between 1830 and 1900, with special attention to the history of race relations. Major topics include slavery, family life, the rise and fall of the Confederacy, the experiences of Emancipation and Reconstruction at the grassroots level, and continuity and change in the postwar years. The course combines intensive reading and discussion with individual research projects. Readings include primary documents, fiction by Southern writers of the era, and recent works by historians of the South. Ms. Edwards.

Prerequisite: History/Africana Studies 276 or permission of instructor.

Not offered in 1999/00.

366a. Studies in Native American History (1)

The Indian response to the invasion of America, focusing on the native peoples east of the Mississippi River prior to their removal during the Jacksonian era. Topics include the value of ethnohistorical methods for understanding the Indian experience, the biological and cultural consequence of contract between Old World and new, the development of stable patters of intercultural relations, and the road to Indian Removal. Mr. Merrell.

Prerequisites: History 274 or 275 or by permission of instructor, with special consideration given to courses in an allied field.

367b. Peoples and Environments in the American West (1)

(Same as Environmental Studies Development Project 367) This course explores the history of the trans-Mississippi West in the nineteenth century and its legacies in modern America. Themes include cultural conflict and accommodation; federal power and Western politics; and humans' negotiations with their environments. The course considers the history of the frontier as a process; the Western U.S. as a geographic place; and the legendary West and its functions in American mythology. Ms. Edwards.

[369a. Themes in Twentieth Century Urban History: Social Reform and the Evolution of the Welfare State] (1)

Examines the growth of labor reform, school reform, and social insurance, beginning with the Progressive Era through the New Deal, the war years after, to the Great Society and the present. Explores how the development of the welfare state affected Americans of different social, racial, ethnic backgrounds, and gender. Focuses on how these various groups acted to shape the evolution of the welfare state as well. Ms. Cohen.

Prerequisite: History 261 or 277 or 278; or by permission of instructor.

Not offered in 1999/00.

373b. Seminar on Studies in African History (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 373) This seminar provides a focused examination of major issues and themes in traditional and modern African history. Topics vary from year to year, and permit seminar members to probe in some depth into some of the significant developments in the historiography relating to the study of Africa and its role in the world. Mr. Rashid.

The topic for 1999/00: Slavery and Abolition in Africa. The Trans-Saharan and the Atlantic slave trade transformed African communities, social structures and cultures. The seminar explores the development, abolition and impact of slavery in Africa from the earliest times to the twentieth century. The major conceptual and historiographical themes include indigenous servitude, female enslavement, family strategies, slave resistance, abolition and culture. The seminar uses specific case studies as well as a comparative framework to understand slavery in Africa.

Prerequisite: standard department prerequisite or by permission of instructor.

377a. Rebels, Traitors, and Heretics: European Intellectuals in Their World, 1800-1900 (1)

The organizing idea for History 377 is the concept of the mal du siècle, brilliantly articulated by the romantics. A variety of cures offered by such intellectuals as Marx, Flaubert, and Nietzsche are examined. Mr. Schalk.

Prerequisite: one of the following: History 230, 231, 254, or by permission of instructor.

378b. Rebels, Traitors, and Heretics: European Intellectuals in Their World Since 1900 (1)

Among the topics studied are intellectual generations, the psychoanalytic and existentialist movements, and periodic waves of engagement when intellectuals have descended from their ivory towers into the world of political and social actuality. Mr. Schalk.

Prerequisite: one of the following: History 237, 239, 377, or by permission of instructor.

[381b. Crosscurrent: (Multi)cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean](1)

(Same as Classics 381) Mr. Lott.

Not offered in 1999/00.

382a. Youth in Russia, 1861 - Present (1)

This seminar explores the history of youth and youth culture in Russia. We look at how youth and teenagers were "discovered" and defined as an age group, through ethnographies, sociological accounts, and memoirs of being young. We explore the youth experience as depicted in films and documentaries. Topics include the experiences of youth during periods of reform (Russia's Great Reforms, Khrushchev reforms, Perestroika), youth legislation and the experiences of waifs and orphans, youth institutions (school, Pioneers, Komsomol, Army), youth and Stalinism, the interactions of Russian and non-Russian youth, the experiences of girls. The course concludes with an exploration of contemporary Russian teen culture, focusing on rock music and its role in the 1980s and 1990s.

[387b. Studies in Victorian Culture and Society: Prejudice and Policy] (1)

An examination of the attitudes and policies of the Victorian governing classes towards Catholics, Jews, the Irish, the lower working classes (the "wandering tribes" of slumdom), and "lesser breeds" within the empire. Anthropological theories and the impact of Social Darwinism are studied as well as racial stereo-typing in popular literature and cartoons. Mr. Wohl.

Prerequisite: by special permission of instructor.

Not offered in 1999/00.

399a or b. Senior Independent Work (1/2 or 1)

Permission required.