Political Science

Professors: Richard Borna, M. Glen Johnson, Sidney Plotkin, Mary L. Shanleyb, Peter G. Stillman, Adelaide H. Villmoare; Associate Professor: Stephen R. Rock (Chair);Assistant Professors: Andrew Davison, Luke C. Harris, Leah Haus, Katherine Hite, Timothy Longman; Adjunct Professors: Frederick Bunnell,* Richard Reitano,* Wilfrid Rumble*.

Absent on leave, first semester.Absent on leave, second semester.* Part time.

Requirements for Concentration: 10 units, including two of the four introductory courses (Political Science 140, 150, 160, 170); 1 unit at the 100- or 200-level in each of the four major fields of political science, i.e., American Politics, Comparative Politics, International Politics, Political Theory; 2 units of graded 300-level work (including one 300-level seminar to be taken in senior year). No more than 1 unit of field work may be counted toward the major. After declaring a major, no course in political science may be elected NRO.

Transfer students and students taking academic leaves of absence: A minimum of 6 graded units in the political science major must be taken at Vassar.

Senior-Year Requirement: One 300-level seminar.

Recommendation: Political Analysis (207) is highly recommended to all majors because it deals specifically with a basic methodology of political science.

Sequence of Courses: The department recommends that students take Modern Political Thought (270) before electing subsequent 200- and 300-level political theory courses. There is no requirement to specialize in one of the four fields, although specialization is permitted.

Advisers: The department.

Correlate Sequences in Political Science: Four correlate sequences are available in political science: one each in American Politics, Comparative Politics, International Politics, and Political Theory. 6 political science units are required to complete each sequence. With the approval of the sequence adviser, up to 2 units of political science credit transferred from outside Vassar may count toward the completion of the sequence.

Correlate Sequence in American Politics: Political Science 140; three courses at the 200-level in the subfield of American politics; one additional related 200-level course (to be determined by the correlate sequence adviser and the student); and a 300-level course in the subfield of American politics. Sequence Advisers: Mr. Plotkin, Ms. Villmoare.

Correlate Sequence in Comparative Politics: Political Science 150; two courses at the 200 level in the subfield of comparative politics; one 200-level in the subfield of international politics; one additional related 200-level course (to be determined by the correlate sequence adviser and the student); and a 300-level course in the subfield of comparative politics. Sequence Adviser: Mr. Longman.

Correlate Sequence in International Politics: Political Science 160; three courses at the 200- level in the subfield of international politics; one additional related 200-level course (to be determined by the correlate sequence adviser and the student); and a 300-level course in the subfield of international politics. Sequence Adviser: Ms. Haus.

Correlate Sequence in Political Theory: Political Science 170; three courses at the 200-level in the subfield of political theory; one additional related 200-level course (to be determined by the correlate sequence adviser and the student); and a 300-level course in the subfield of political theory. Sequence Advisers: Ms. Shanley, Mr. Stillman.

I. Introductory

The courses listed below are introductions to the four major fields of political science: American Politics, Comparative Politics, International Politics, and Political Theory. First-year students would normally elect one course each semester. Two introductory courses are required of majors, and it is possible and sometimes desirable to take all four. Introductory courses may be taken either semester.

140a or b. American Politics (1)

An analysis of the American political system and the structures and processes by which public policies are formulated and implemented. Attention is focused upon decision-making in institutions of American national government, such as Congress, the Presidency, and the Supreme Court, and upon political behaviorpublic opinion, voting, and other forms of political activity. Attention is also given to evaluation of selected public policies and contemporary issues, and questions of political change. Mr. Born, Mr. Harris, Mr. Plotkin, Ms. Villmoare.

150a or b. Comparative Politics (1)

An examination of the political systems of selected foreign societies chosen to illustrate major types: Western and non-Western, democratic and authoritarian, and mature and developing. The political system is seen to include formal institutions of government, such as parliaments and bureaucracies; political parties and other forms of group life; those aspects of the history and social and economic structure of a society that are relevant to politics; and political beliefs, values, and ideologies. Special attention is given to the question of political change and development, whether through revolutionary or constitutional process. Ms. Hite, Mr. Longman.

160a or b. International Politics (1)

An examination of major issues in international politics, including national and international security and production and distribution of wealth, along with selected global issues such as human rights, ethnic nationalism and ethnic conflict, migration and refugees, environmental degradation and protection, and the impact of developments in communication and information technologies. Attention is also given to the origins, evolution, and the future of the contemporary international system, as well as to competing theoretical perspectives on world politics. Ms. Haus, Mr. Johson, Mr. Rock.

170a or b. Political Theory (1)

An introduction to the nature, types, and problems of political theory. The core of the readings consists of selections from the classic works of Western political philosophy. The relevance of the ideas of the classical political philosophers to current political developments and scholarship is emphasized. Mr. Davison, Ms. Shanley.

Open to juniors and seniors by permission only.

II. Intermediate

Prerequisite: 1 unit of introductory political science, or by permission of instructor which is generally granted to juniors and seniors with sufficient preparation in related disciplines.

[207a. Political Analysis] (1)

A study of the methods for collecting quantitative and qualitative data in political science. In addition to exploring the logic of scientific inquiry and methods of analysis, normative questions are raised concerning the potential biases and limitations of particular modes of inquiry. Research examples emphasize the special problems in cross-cultural validation. Mr. Born.

Alternate years: not offered in 1999/00.

A. American Politics

235. Politics and Popular Culture (1)

Explores the political significance of contemporary popular culture in the United States with a particular focus on newspapers, television, and movies. Examines issues of power and freedom in popular culture with particular attention to opportunities and constraints in the relationships between mass media and their audiences. Analysis includes questions about stereotyping and diversity and race, ethnicity, class, gender, and sexual orientation. Attention is given to the construction of political news and to the political meanings news media convey to the American public. Ms. Villmoare.

[236. The Law and Politics of Death in Modern America] (1)

This course proposes to study the political, legal, philosophical, technological, and social dimensions of death in the United States. It begins with an examination of current scientific and moral questions surrounding definitions of death (and life). From there we move to consider assisted suicide, murder, lynching (as a particular form of murder), and killing of batterers with particular attention to issues confronted by the legal and political system. A final portion of the course engages debate surrounding capital punishment. Throughout the course we focus on the role of the state (especially the criminal justice system), legal rights and claims, and political activism. Ms. Villmoare.

Not offered in 1999/00.

239. Public Policy Analysis (1)

A study of public policy formation and implementation within the larger setting of power in the United States. A major concern of the course is the implications of the policy process for democracy. Case studies may include the fiscal crisis, welfare, health policy, energy policy, economic development, and campaign finance reform. Mr. Plotkin.

Alternate years: offered in 1999/00.

[240. The American Presidency] (1)

An analysis of the American presidency, with emphasis on recent presidents. Topics include presidential nominations and elections; the nature and use of presi-dential power; the institutionalized presidency; policy making in the White House; the relationship between presidents and other key political factors, e.g., the Congress, the bureaucracy, the media, and public opinion; and the role of presidential personality and style. Mr. Born.

Alternate years: not offered in 1999/00.

[241. Congress] (1)

An analysis of the contemporary and evolving U.S. Congress, its organization, functions, and politics. Topics include congressional elections and representation; the internal life and norms of the House and Senate; the structure of power in Congress; interest groups and lobbying; presidential-congressional relations; the congressional response to selected public problems; and political change and the future of Congress. Mr. Born.

Alternate years: not offered in 1999/00.

[242. Law, Justice, and Politics] (1)

An analysis of the interrelationships between law and politics in civil and criminal spheres in the United States, focusing on the role of the police, courtroom participants, and prison officials. Special emphasis is given to decision making in criminal law at the local levele.g., pretrial negotiations, bail, and sentencing. Ms. Villmoare.

Not offered in 1999/00.

243b. Constitutional Law (1)

Leading decisions of the Supreme Court interpreting the Constitution of the United States, with special reference to the powers of government and the rights of individuals. Mr. Rumble.

244. Political Parties and Public Opinion (1)

An examination of the nature and roles of public opinion and political parties in American politics, with emphasis on democratic means of political participation and influence in contemporary America. Special attention is paid to mass and elite political attitudes and behavior, techniques of public opinion polling, the impact of public opinion on policy making, recent national elections, campaign techniques and strategies, and the changing party system. Mr. Born.

Alternate years: offered in 1999/00.

[245. Sex and Power in American Politics] (1)

A study of the relationship of women to politics in the United States. Attention is paid to the women's rights and suffrage movements of the nineteenth century, to women and the law, and to the ideological and political dimensions of the contemporary women's movement. Ms. Shanley

Not offered in 1999/00.

246b. African-American Politics (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 246) This analyzes the diverse ways in which African-Americans have engaged in politics in the United States. After briefly considering challenges facing the African-American community, the course looks at approaches to politics including active engagement in the political system, Pan-Africanism and Black nationalism, accommodation and assimilation, class-based struggle, and everyday forms of resistance. The course concludes with a consideration of possible policy alternatives advocated by various African-American leaders. Writers to be studied may include WEB du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Booker T. Washington, Malcom X, Martin Luther King, Jr., William Julius Wilson, bell hooks, Manning Marable, Robin Kelley, Angela Davis, and Patricia Williams. Mr. Longman.

247. The Politics of Difference (1)

This course relates to the meanings of various group experiences in American politics. It explicitly explores, for example, issues of race, class, gender, and sexual orientation. Mr. Harris.

[249. The Politics of City, Suburb, and Neighborhood] (1)

An examination of the development, organization and practice of the varied forms of politics in metropolitan areas. Main themes include struggles between machine and reform politicians in cities; fiscal politics and urban preoccupations with economic development; racial and class politics in cities; changes in federal urban policy; neighborhood politics and alternative forms of community organizations and development; suburban politics and exclusion. Mr. Plotkin.

Alternate years: not offered in 1999/00.

287. Law of Race and Gender Antidiscrimination in the U.S. (1)

This course explores the history of antidiscrimination law in the United States. We start by examining how people of color and Euro-Americans were defined as "races." Thereafter, we analyze the development of antidiscrimination principles in America by focusing on a range of Supreme Court decisions and Congressional initiatives developed in the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. An array of interdisciplinary secondary sources as well as writings by lawyers, political scientists, and legal scholars are used in this class. Mr. Harris.

B. Comparative Politics

250a. African Politics (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 250) This course introduces students to the great diversity of peoples, ideas, cultures, and political practices found on the African continent. The course first investigates the causes of the contemporary social, economic, and political challenges facing African states, then analyzes the ways in which African populations have responded to foreign domination, authoritarian government, unfavorable economic conditions, and social divisions. The course uses case studies of African countries to explore political issues within specific contexts and pays particular attention to international involvement in Africa. Mr. Longman.

Alternate years: offered in 1999/00.

253. Transitions In Europe (1)

This course considers transitions in Europe, with a focus on Russia and the European Union. An analysis of such recent changes as the collapse of authoritarianism and emergence of democracy in the former Soviet Union, the emerging democratic deficit in the European Union, marketization in Russia, and the transition to a single European market in the European Union. Ms. Haus.

[254. Western European Politics] (1)

An inquiry into the impact of institutional structure (including the structure of the state, labor unions, and party system), with a focus on Britain, France, and Germany. Considers the historical origins and contemporary consequences of different institutional designs. Compares institutionalist perspectives with alternative economy-centered perspectives to explain social coalitions and cleavages, and policy-making toward such issues as unemployment, economic recession, and immigration. Ms. Haus.

Not offered in1999/00.

[255. Government and Politics in South Asia] (1)

A comparative analysis of political phenomena in South Asia with special attention to the interaction between traditional cultural patterns, such as religion, caste, and language, and modern political forms, such as parties, parliamentary institutions, bureaucracy, political associations, and the military. Primary attention is given to India with some reference to Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. Mr. Johnson.

Alternate years: not offered in 1999/00..

256. Politics and Conflict in the Middle East (1)

A comparative analysis of the causes and dynamics of selected intra- and interstate conflicts in the Middle East: the Arab/Palestinian-Israeli conflict, the gulf Wars of the 1980s and 1990s, and the conflicts over Kurdistan and the Western Sahara. Also receiving attention are the various institutional, economic, ideological, cultural, and technological factors shaping these conflicts, their competing interpretations, and questions concerning "just resolution." Mr. Davison.

258: Latin American Politics (1)

An examination of major political issues and challenges facing contemporary Latin America, from ongoing processes of democratization and economic liberalization, to new efforts at regional integration and peace-keeping. The course also explores movements for socially sustainable development and citizenship rights on the part of non-governmental organizations and networks. The course uses country cases from throughout the region, including the Southern Cone, the Andes, Central America, and Mexico. Ms. Hite

286. The Politics of Modern Social Movements (1)

This course examines continuities and transformations in both the study and practice of modern political and social movements. The course explores why movements emerge, how they develop, and what they accomplish. We study several dimensions of collective action, including their organization, leadership, ideology or programmatic content, and objectives. Our case studies are rich and diverse, spanning actors and geographic regions, yet we consciously draw comparisons across the cases concerning movements' origins, the context of power relations and political positioning within society. We also seek to understand the sometimes powerful, sometimes subtle influences of twentieth century social movements on the nature of socioeconomic, gender, racial and ethnic relations today. Ms. Hite.

C. International Politics

[261. Theories of War and Peace] (1)

An inquiry into the causes of war and peace among states. Explanations at various levelshuman, societal, governmental, internationalare considered. The course aims at an understanding of those factors which lead individual states into conflict with one another as well as those which incline the broader international system toward stability or instability. Mr. Rock.

Alternate years: not offered in 1999/00.

264. The Foreign Policy of the United States (1)

Key factors which shape the formulation and execution of American foreign policy are identified, primarily through a series of case studies drawn from post­World War II experience in world affairs. Normative issues concerning the decision-making process and foreign policy goals and means are also discussed. Mr. Rock.

265. International Political Economy (1)

This course analyzes the relationship between politics and economics, and explores change in the global political economy. It considers alternative theoretical perspectives and case studies to inquire into such subjects as the rise and decline of empires; economic sanctions; international and regional institutions (e.g., the World Trade Organization, the IMF, the European Union, and NAFTA) and their implications for cooperation, conflict and protectionism; technological developments and their implications for the conventional boundaries between the international and domestic arenas; and globalization and its implications for migration, inequality, and democracy. Ms. Haus.

266. Defense Policy and Arms Control (1)

An examination of American defense and arms control policy since 1945. Particular atention is given to the theory and practice of conventional and nuclear deterrence, and to the analysis of such contemporary issues as proliferation, the role of women and gays in the military, and the problem of economic conversion. Mr. Rock.

Alternate years: offered in 1999/00.

[267a. NGOs and Global Society] (1)

After reviewing alternative theories of the role of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) in civil society and their relationship to the state, the focus is on a comparative analysis of the ideologies, strategies, and impacts of NGOs in dealing with such issues as human rights, the environment, women's reproductive health, AIDS, and land reform. Case studies are drawn from both the United States (especially Poughkeepsie) and selected countries from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Sources encompass scholarly literature, Internet sites, fiction, films, and dialogues with NGO activists. Mr. Bunnell.

Not offered in 1999/00.

269b. National Model United Nations (1)

Prepares students to participate in the National Model U.N. in New York. Students represent a country and its policies, research the country's history, its economic and political systems, and its foreign policy. Participation in the Model U.N. occurs in April. Mr. Reitano.

Prerequisite: by permission of instructor; requires application early in the a-term.

One 4-hour period.

D. Political Theory

270. Modern Political Thought (1)

A study of selected modern political theorists, such as Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Marx, Mill, and Arendt. Among the themes stressed are theories of sovereignty, the development and varieties of liberalism and individualism, different theories of community, the relationships between politics and economics, and the relationship between the individual and the state. Mr. Stillman.

271. American Political Theory (1)

Studies of American political theory, particularly issues surrounding the meanings of democracy, political obligation, and equality. Readings include works about the government of Native American peoples, Spanish and English colonial rule, the U.S. Constitution, the post­Civil War amendments, women's suffrage and women's rights, and the political and constitutional challenges posed by a pluralistic or multicultural society. Mr. Stillman.

272. Marx and Marxist Thought (1)

A study of the thought of Marx, later Marxists, and radical thinkers of the twentieth century. Mr. Stillman.

Alternate years: offered in 1999/00.

273. Interpreting Politics (1)

A detailed study of the philosophical underpinnings of various modes of interpreting politics: empiricism/positivism; interpretive/hermeneutic inquiry, critical theory, rational choice theory, realism, and discourse analysis. Aim is to understand the central concepts and goals of each approach, the kinds of explanations they seek to offer, and the views they posit regarding the relationship between politics and theory, on the one hand, and politics and the political analyst, on the other. Mr. Davison.

[275. Ideology and Politics in the Muslim Middle East] (1)

In this course we will study various Muslim interpretations of Islam and its role in politics in the Middle East. Readings will focus on different interpretations on the relationship between Islam and politics in the region and the material and institutional contexts of selected states within which those interpretations emerge. These states will include Iran (an Islamic Republic), Turkey (a Laicist Republic), and several states in the Arab world. Readings will also include material on women in Islam and Sufism. Mr. Davison.

Not offered in 1999/00.

[276. Utopian Political Thought] (1)

A study of major Western utopias from Thomas More's to the present, including proposed "good societies," dystopias such as Brave New World, and existing communities, such as theme parks, suburbs, and malls, that are utopian or can be analyzed through utopian principles. Central themes include the treatment of change, progress, and ideals; idealism versus realism; and problems of political critique and political programs. Mr. Stillman.

Alternate years: not offered in 1999/00.

278. Feminism and Political Theory (1)

Explores selected topics of importance for both political philosophy and feminist theory. Examines disputes surrounding such concepts as equality, liberty, reverse discrimination, autonomy, privacy, and citizenship, and may utilize classic texts as well as contemporary writings. Particular attention is paid to the diversity of experiences and perspectives among American feminists. Ms. Shanley.

Alternate years: offered in 1999/00.

[279. Conservatism and Its Critics] (1)

An examination of the major strands of conservative thought, with an emphasis on Britain and the United States. Central concerns are the origins of conservatism with Locke, Smith, and Burke; the development of major strands of conservative thought, especially traditional, skeptical, and libertarian; and the status and variety of conservative thought, and an analysis of conservative programs and policies, in the contemporary United States. Mr. Stillman.

Not offered in 1999/00.

E. Other

290a or b. Field Work (1/2 or 1)

Individual or group field projects or internships with prior approval of the adviser. Students are expected to do substantial directed reading in theoretical material specifically related to the field placement prior to or in conjunction with the field experience; to develop in consultation with a faculty supervisor a set of questions based on the theoretical reading to guide the field observations; to submit a written report relating the theoretical reading to the field observations or, in lieu of a report and at the option of the department, to take a final oral examination administered by two faculty members. No more than 1 unit of field work (either 290, 291, or a combination of the two) may be counted toward fulfilling the requirements of the minimum major. The department.

298a or b. Independent Work (1/2 or 1)

Independent work is normally based on a student's desire to study with an instruc-

tor a specialized aspect of a course taken with that instructor. One unit normally entails substantial directed reading and/or the writing of a long paper and biweekly conferences with the instructor. In no case shall independent work satisfy the sub-field distribution requirement. The department.

III. Advanced

Prerequisite for all advanced seminars: permission of the instructor and normally a relevant course at a lower level. Enrollments, in general, are limited to twelve students. The content of seminars can vary from year to year depending upon inter-ests of students and instructors. Seminars might focus on topics too specialized to receive exhaustive treatment in lower-level courses; they might explore particular approaches to the discipline or particular methods of research; they might be concerned with especially difficult problems in political life, or be oriented toward a research project of the instructor.

A. Optional Senior Thesis

300. Senior Thesis (1)

A 1-unit thesis, written in the fall semester.

301-302. Senior Thesis (1 or 2)

A 1-unit thesis written in two semesters or a 2-unit thesis written in two semesters.

B. American Politics Seminars

[341. Seminar in Congressional Politics] (1)

This seminar focuses on the theme of congresspeople and their constituentsa subject that has become quite popular among congressional scholars. While the theme is broadly construed, most of our attention is focused on congressional elections. Here we study reapportionment and redistricting, campaign finance reform, the too-often ignored subject of recruitment of congressional candidates, the role of national party organizations in congressional campaigns, the emergence of sophisticated campaign techniques, how the Republicans managed to "nationalize" the 1994 midterms and win their landslide victory, why divided party control of government has been so pervasive in the U.S., and how congresspeople continually cultivate the support of constituents over their entire term of office through casework and project assistance. Mr. Born.

Prerequisite: by permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

Not offered in 1999/00.

343. Seminar in Constitutional Theory (1)

Explores the constitutional rights of members of groups that previously were relegated to second-class citizenship in the United States. Forms of discrimination based upon group factors such as gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, national origin, economic class, and religion are considered. Mr. Harris.

346. Seminar in American Politics (1)

An examination of selected topics in American politics. Ms. Villmoare.

Prerequisite: by permission, normally an intermediate-level course in American politics.

One 2-hour period.

348. Seminar in Democracy and Power in America (1)

An examination of tensions and adjustments between democratic ideals and the structures and practices of political and economic power in the United States. Mr. Plotkin.

Prerequisite: by permission of instructor, normally an intermediate-level course in American Politics.

One 2-hour period.

C. Comparative Politics Seminars

[352. Seminar on Multiculturalism in Comparative Perspective] (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 352) This seminar explores the political significance of cultural diversity. Based on the comparative analysis of the United States and other multicultural states, the course examines how and why racial, ethnic, linguistic, and religious identities become grounds for political action. The course examines the formation of identity groups and considers the origins of prejudice, racism, and discrimination. The course also considers peaceful means that governments can use to accommodate cultural diversity. In addition to the United States, countries studied may include South Africa, Rwanda, India, and Yugoslavia. Mr. Longman.

Prerequisite: by permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

Not offered in 1999/00.

354b. Seminar on the Politics of Religion in Africa and the Diaspora (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 354) In recent decades the influence of religious organizations and movements on politics has emerged as a major focus within the social sciences. In this course, we consider issues of religion and politics within the specific context of Africa and the African Diaspora. Topics include religious involvement in democratization movements in countries from South Africa to Haiti, the rise of Islamist political movements in places such as Sudan and Algerian conflicts and interactions between religious traditions; the political implications of syncretic religious movements such as Umbanda and Kitawalism; and the significance of the Black church in African American politics. Mr. Longman.

Prerequisite: by permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

355. Seminar on Violence (1)

This seminar explores the many manifestations of political violence. Drawing primarily from cases in the Third World, we examine: 1) how governments and societies address systematic violations of human rights of their pasts; 2) organized insurgency and counterinsurgency response; and 3) extremely high levels of violence as an every day social phenomenon. The seminar attempts to address the influences, linkages, and implications of past and present violence for these societies; present and future politics and culture. Case studies come from Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia, and students are encouraged to focus on a country case in consultation with the instructor. Ms. Hite.

One 2-hour period.

D. International Politics Seminars

360. Seminar in International Conflict and Cooperation (1)

An examination of selected topics in international conflict and cooperation. Mr. Rock.

Prerequisite: by permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

361. Seminar in International Politics and Foreign Policy (1)

An examination of selected topics and concepts in international politics. Mr. Johnson.

Prerequisite: by permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

362. Seminar in International Politics: Migration and Citizenship (1)

An inquiry into the causes and consequences of migration from developing countries to developed countries (e.g., the U.S., France, and Germany). The seminar first addresses different explanations for why people move across borders and considers the role of economic forces, transnational social networks, state policy, and the legacies of colonialism. It then addresses immigrant incorporation and reactions to immigration in developed countries through an analysis of such subjects as immigrant entrepreneurship in New York City, the rise of the radical right in France, citizenship policy in France and Germany, relations between unions and immigrants, and the incorporation of immigrant children or the second generation. Ms. Haus.

E. Political Theory Seminars

373. Seminar in Political Philosophy (1)

A study of a major theorist, school, or problem in political philosophy. Mr. Stillman.

Prerequisite: by permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

376. Seminar in Feminist Theory In Political Thought (1)

This seminar studies feminist theory concerning families and public policies affecting family life in the contemporary United States. We examine the impact of reproductive technology on family formation (including "surrogate motherhood," sperm and ovum donation); single motherhood and welfare policy (from the Moynihan Report to the Contract with America); adoption (particularly transracial adoption and "open" adoption); legal and social aspects of same-sex marriage and same-sex parenting; and the philosophical and political aspects of the "family values" debate. We pay particular attention to the impact of race and class on each of the issues we study.

Prerequisite: by permission only of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

381. The Three Religions of the Book and Political Theory (1)

An examination of theories underlying contemporary theopolitical thought and practice through an examination of the primary and secondary canons of the Judaic, Christian, and Islamic traditions. Topics include: interpretations of power, authority, obligation, citizenship, justice, peace, war, and the role and function of the state. Readings include contemporary accounts of the persisting of each traditions' view of politics in contemporary political theory and practice. Mr. Davison.

F. Other

399a or b. Senior Independent Work (1/2 or 1)

Independent work is normally based on a student's desire to study with an instructor a specialized aspect of a course taken with that instructor. Normally 1 unit entails substantial directed reading, the writing of a long paper, and biweekly conferences with the instructor. This course cannot be used to satisfy the requirement of 2 units of 300-level work in the major. In no case shall independent work satisfy the subfield distribution requirement. The department.