Science, Technology and Society Program

The multidisciplinary program in Science, Technology, and Society is designed to enable students to pursue three objectives: a) to understand the central role of science and technology in contemporary society; b) to examine how science and technology reflect their social, political, philosophical, economic and cultural contexts; and c) to explore the human, ethical and policy implications of current and emerging technologies.

Students interested in the program are urged to plan for declaration as early as possible in their college careers. Freshmen and sophomores should talk with the director concerning courses to be taken in the freshman and sophomore years.

Programs

Major

Courses

Science, Technology and Society: I. Introductory

105b. 20th Century Revolutions in Physics (1)

(Same as PHYS 105) Lord Kelvin, one of the most distinguished physicists of the 19th century, is famous for his 1900 proclamation: "There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now." In the fall of that same year Max Planck provided the spark that would become the revolutionary fire from which a new physics was born. The multiple revolutions in physics that proceeded Kelvin's proclamation are the subject of this class. We examine the developments of Quantum Theory, Special and General Theories of Relativity, and Modern Cosmology studying each in its proper historical context. From both primary and secondary sources we learn the basic concepts that became the fabric of today's physics. Along the way, we are sure to unearth both the undeniable impacts these discoveries have had on society and the contingency surrounding the nature of these scientific revolutions. Mr. Perillan.

Not offered in 2015/16.

Two 75-minute periods.

111a. Science and Justice in the Anthropocene (1)

(Same as ESCI 111 and GEOG 111) Geoscientists have proposed a new designation in the geologic time scale for our current time period, "the Anthropocene." The designation reflects the fact that human beings are acting as geological agents, transforming the Earth on a global scale. In this freshman seminar course we explore the possibilities of reconfiguring the actions of humans in the Anthropocene so as to lead to a flowering of a new Era once called 'the Ecozoic' by cultural historian Thomas Berry. Ms. Schneiderman.

Open to freshmen only; satisfies college requirement for a Freshman Writing Seminar.

Two 75-minute periods.

131a. Genetic Engineering: Basic Principles and Ethical Questions (1)

This course includes a consideration of: 1) basic biological knowledge about the nature of the gene, the genetic code, and the way in which the genetic code is translated into the phenotype of the organism; 2) how this basic, scientific knowledge has led to the development of a new technology known as "genetic engineering''; 3) principles and application of the technology itself; 4) the ethical, legal, and economic issues which have been raised by the advent of this technology. Among the issues discussed are ethical questions such as the nature of life itself, the right of scientists to pursue research at will, and the role of the academy to regulate the individual scientific enterprise. Ms. Kennell.

Not offered in 2015/16.

138a. Energy: Sources and Policies (0.5)

A multidisciplinary introduction to the principal sources of energy currently being used in the United States and the economic, political, and environmental choices they entail. The two largest energy sectors, electrical generating and transportation, are the main focus for the course, but emerging technologies such as wind power and hydrogen are also examined. There are no science prerequisites except a willingness to explore the interconnections of scientific principle, engineering practice and social context.

Six-week course.

146b. The Culture and Chemistry of Cuisine (1)

(Same as CHEM 146) A basic biological need of all organisms is the ability to acquire nutrients from the environment; humans accomplish this in many creative ways. Food is an important factor in societies that influences population growth, culture, migration, and conflict. Humans discovered the science and art of food preparation, topics that are explored in this course, not in a single step but rather as an evolving process that continues to this day. This course develops the basic chemistry, biochemistry and microbiology of food preparation; explores the biochemical basis of certain nutritional practices; covers social and political aspects of foods throughout world history. It covers controversies like genetically modified organisms, the production of high-fructose corn syrup, and the historic role of food commodities such as salt, rum, and cod in the world economy. Course topics are explored through lectures, student presentations, and readings from both popular and scientific literature. The course includes a few laboratories to explore the basic science behind food preparation. Ms. Rossi, Mr. Jemiolo.

160a. Relatively Uncertain: A History of Physics, Religion and Popular Culture (1)

(Same as PHYS 160 and RELI 160) This course examines the cultural history of key ideas and experiments in physics, looking in particular at how non-scientists understood key concepts such as entropy, relativity, quantum mechanics and the idea of higher or new dimensions. It begins with an assumption that's widely accepted among historians -- namely, that the sciences are a part of culture and are influenced by cultural trends, contemporary concerns and even urgent personal ethical or religious dilemmas. In this course we are attuned to the ways that physicists drew key insights from popular culture and how non-scientists, including religious or spiritual seekers, appropriated (and misappropriated) scientific insights about the origin and nature of the world, its underlying laws and energetic forces, and its ultimate meaning and purpose. Mr. Daly and Mr. White.

Two 75-minute periods.

172a. Microbial Wars (1)

(Same as BIOL 172) This course explores our relationship with microbes that cause disease. Topics including bioterrorism, vaccinology, smallpox eradication, influenza pandemics, antibiotic resistance, and emerging diseases are discussed to investigate how human populations are affected by disease, how and why we alter microorganisms intentionally or unintentionally, and how we study disease causing microbes of the past and present. The use of new technologies in microbiology that allow us to turn harmful pathogens into helpful medical or industrial tools are also discussed. Mr. Esteban.

Not offered in 2015/16.

181a. Reproduction, Families and Social Policy (1)

(Same as POLI 181 and WMST 181) This course studies both social and biological dimensions surrounding family formation in the contemporary United States. Families are undergoing radical transformation as a result of rapid change in scientific knowledge, reproductive technologies and social organization. Topics may include: contraception, pre-natal testing, birthing technologies, and assigning parentage and custody. We will investigate the profound ways in which changes in such areas affect understanding of, and social supports for, families in United States society. Ms. Pokrywka and Ms. Shanley.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

This course is taught at the Taconic Correctional Facility for Women to a combined class of Vassar and Taconic students.

183b. The Invention of Science (1)

(Same as GRST 183) This class focuses on ancient Greco-Roman speculation about, description of, investigation into, and modification of the natural world. Units are devoted to observers of nature, such as Aristotle and the Presocratics, mathematicians such as Archimedes and Euclid, practitioners of medicine such as Hippocrates and Galen, and theorists of technological innovation, including writers on architecture, agriculture, and weaponry. In reading and writing about these texts students become particularly attuned to the metaphors, narratives, and rhetorical devices that such theorists use to authorize their work, and explore the function of similar authorizing moves in modern scientific writing, while becoming more attuned to the often occluded cultural narratives and metaphors that underlie our own scientific age. The final paper for the class involves an analysis of a modern scientific text in this light. Mr. Dozier.

All readings are provided in English translation. Open only to freshmen; satisfies the college requirement for a Freshman Writing Seminar.

Two 75-minute periods.

Science, Technology and Society: II. Intermediate

200b. Conceptualizing STS: Theories and Practice (1)

An introduction to the multidisciplinary study of contemporary science and technology through selected case studies and key texts representing the major perspectives and methods of analysis, including work by Thomas Kuhn, Robert Merton, Bruno Latour, Sandra Harding, Helen Longino, and Naomi Oreskes. Some of the issues include the concept of scientific revolution, the nature of "big science" and "high technology," the sociology of scientific knowledge, the social construction of science and technology, the ethics of funding/owning science and technology, and feminist approaches to science and technology. Mr. Perillán.

Prerequisite or Corequisite: one other Science, Technology and Science course.

Two 75-minute periods.

202b. History of Modern Science and Technology (1)

A survey of major developments in Western science and technology from 1800 to the present. Major topics include; Laplace and the rise of mathematical physics; the development of thermodynamics; the work of Darwin and Pasteur; Edison and the rise of electrical technology; the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics; the Manhattan Project; plate tectonics and molecular biology; and the development of computers and cybernetics. Special emphasis is placed on the concepts of "big science.

Prerequisite: 1 unit of natural or a social science.

Not offered in 2015/16.

Two 75-minute periods.

220b. The Political Economy of Health Care (1)

(Same as ECON 220) Topics include the markets for physicians and nurses, hospital services, pharmaceuticals, and health insurance, both public and private; effects of changes in medical technology; and global health problems. A comparative study of several other countries' health care systems and reforms to the U.S. system focuses on problems of financing and providing access to health care in a climate of increasing demand and rising costs. 

Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102. Students who have not taken ECON 101 but have strong quantitative backgrounds may enroll with instructor's permission.

Not offered in 2015/16.

222a. Bioethics and Human Reproduction (1)

Scientific and technological advances are revolutionizing the ways in which human beings can procreate. This has given rise to debates over the ethical use of these methods, and over whether and how law and public policy should regulate these procedures and recognize the family relationships created by their use. This course examines topics such as fertility treatments, the commodification of gametes and embryos, contraceptive development and use, genetic screening and genetic modification of embryos, genetic testing in establishing family rights and responsibilities, and human cloning. We examine issues surrounding the ethical use of these methods, and consider whether and how law and public policy should regulate these procedures and recognize the family relationships created by their use. Ms. Pokrywka.

226b. Philosophy of Science (1)

(Same as PHIL 226) This course explores general questions about the nature of scientific inquiry, as well as philosophical issues that arise in relation to specific scientific theories and their technological applications. Is scientific inquiry paradigmatically rational, or must we choose between competing scientific "paradigms" without recourse to neutral methodological principles? Do our best scientific theories provide us with an accurate depiction of the natural order, or do they only enable us to make successful predictions? Can evolutionary theory's account of the origins of life be successfully defended against its critics? Are there grounds for maintaining that computers will soon become conscious? Does quantum theory's predictive success justify the claim that there are parallel universes? Mr. Winblad.

Prerequisite: one 100-level course in Philosophy.

Two 75-minute periods.

231b. Tools and Human Behavior (1)

Humans are obligate tools users. For the last 2 million years humans have evolved in concert with tools and all human interactions with the environment are mediated by technology. This course will examine theories of technological change, drawing upon scholarship in anthropology, the history of technology, economic history, and evolutionary theory. Also considered will be the ways in which people, individually and in groups, interact with raw materials to transform them into artifacts, use these artifacts and then redeposit them in the natural environment. Ms. Johnson.

Prerequisite: previous coursework in Anthropology or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2015/16.

Two 75-minute periods.

234b. Disability and Society (1)

(Same as SOCI 234) The vision of disability has changed radically over the past twenty years. Public policies have been legislated, language has been altered, opportunities have been rethought, a social movement has emerged, problems of discrimination, oppression, and prejudice have been highlighted, and social thinkers have addressed a wide range of issues relating to the representation and portrayal of people with disabilities. This course examines these issues, focusing on the emergence of the disability rights movement, the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act, the various debates over American Sign Language, "deaf culture," and the student uprising at Gallaudet University and how writers and artists have portrayed people with disabilities. Ms. Miringoff.

Not offered in 2015/16.

Two 2-hour periods each week; one 2-hour period is devoted to lecture and discussion of reading materials, the second 2-hour period serves as a laboratory for films, speakers, and trips.

250a. Across Religious Boundaries: Understanding Differences (1)

Topic for 2015/16a: Interpreting Religious Fits, Trances and Visions. (Same as RELI 250) This course is an introduction to ways of understanding and interpreting religious experiences. The course analyzes religious experiences from a variety of (mostly American) contexts, with attention to how religious people themselves describe experiences and how scholars try to account for them. It examines moments of sudden conversion, insight or inspiration, nature mysticism, and ritual practices that are performed by Muslims, Christians and others. Mr. White.

254a. Bio-Politics of Breast Cancer (1)

(Same as WMST 254) We examine the basic scientific, clinical and epidemiological data relevant to our current understanding of the risks (including environmental, genetic, hormonal and lifestyle factors), detection, treatment (including both traditional and alternative approaches), and prevention of breast cancer. In trying to understand these data in the context of the culture of the disease, we explore the roles of the pharmaceutical companies, federal and private foundations, survivor and other activist groups, and the media in shaping research, treatment and policy strategies related to breast cancer. Ms. Gray.

Not offered in 2015/16.

Two 75-minute periods.

258a. Black Holes, Human Clones and Nanobots: The Edge of Science (1)

Will the newest version of the CERN accelerator in Europe create a mini black hole on earth? What are the implications of our advances in genetic engineering and nanotechnology? Twentieth-century science gave us revolutions in many diverse fields, but three of the most important and pervasive innovations were relativity, quantum theory, and the mapping of the human genome. The effects of these advances on human knowledge have begun to ripple through our society but they are far from having realized their full potential. Where do we stand now and where are we headed? These are the fundamental questions we will grapple with in this course. The implications of understanding nature, and by extension learning to manipulate nature, straddle multiple disciplines. We explore topics in the conceptual understanding of modern science and its relationship to religion, politics, economics, and philosophy. No mathematical background is necessary; a sincere interest in the subject matter is the only pre-requisite for this course. Readings may include works by authors such as Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, James Watson, Justine Burley, Thomas Kuhn, Hilary Putnam, Arthur C. Clarke, Richard Dawkins, and Brian Greene among others. Mr. Perrillán.

Not offered in 2015/16.

Two 75-minute periods.

260a. Health, Medicine, and Public Policy (1)

(Same as SOCI 260) Health care represents one of the thorniest arenas of public policy today. Current issues include the rising numbers of uninsured, concerns over privacy, protection of the public from emerging infectious diseases, the debate between health care as a right vs. a privilege, and the ways in which we conceive the relationship between health, medicine, and society. This course begins with an analysis of the 'social construction' of health, looking particularly at the issue of AIDS, national and international. We then examine policies arising from epidemic or infectious diseases, including the Black Death, the 1918 Influenza epidemic, and Typhoid Mary, as well as contemporary dilemmas over newly emergent diseases. Finally, we consider controversies over national health insurance, and assess the strengths and weaknesses of the Canadian health care system, the Massachusetts experiment, and the history of Medicare and Medicaid. Ms. Miringoff.

Not offered in 2015/16.

267a. Environmental and Natural Resource Economics (1)

(Same as ECON 267) This course examines environmental and natural resource issues from an economic perspective. Environmental problems and controversies are introduced and detailed, and then various possible policies and solutions to the problems are analyzed. Economic analyses will determine the effectiveness of potential policies and also determine the people and entities which benefit from (and are hurt by) these policies. The goal is for students to develop a framework for understanding environmental problems and then to learn how to analyze policy actions within that framework. Topics include water pollution, air pollution, species protection, externalities, the energy situation, and natural resource extraction. Mr. Ruud.

Prerequisite: ECON 101 or ECON 102, or permission of the instructor. ECON 209 recommended.

270b. Drugs, Culture, and Society (1)

(Same as SOCI 270) This course draws on a variety of Science Studies and Sociological frameworks to consider the implications of various substances that we conventionally refer to as "drugs." Topics include medical, psychiatric, instrumental, or recreational use of licit and illicit substances. Relevant conceptional frameworks are used to explore and analyze the impact of new chemical technology, debates regarding the safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals, the consequences of globalization on patterns of use, policy and enforcement, as well as the social construction of drugs as a social problem. Heroin, Cocaine, Marijuana, Methamphetamine, MDMA, Ayahuasca, ADHD drugs, SSRIs and hormonal Steroids are all of special interest in so far as they constitute strategic sites for the study of social or technological controversy. Mr. McAulay.

Two 75-minute periods.

273b. The New Economy (1)

(Same as SOCI 273) The new economy is, in one sense, a very old concern of sociology. Since the discipline's 19th-c. origins, sociologists have asked how changes in material production and economic relations alter the ways that people live, work, understand their lives, and relate to one another. However, current interests in the new economy center upon something new: a flexible, "just in time" mode of industry and consumerism made possible by information technologies and related organizational innovations. The logic of this new economy, as well as its consequences for society, are the subject of this course. Topics include the evolving role of technology in economic globalization; the precarity of today's workplaces and labor markets; the question of the "creative class"; digital divides in technology access, education, and lifestyles; and the cutting edges of consumerism. Mr. Nevarez.

Not offered in 2015/16.

278b. Albert Einstein (1)

This course explores the complex life and work of the iconic scientist of the 20th century. Using recent biographical studies and a wide range of original sources (in translation), Einstein's revolutionary contributions to relativity and quantum mechanics, his role in Germany in the opposition to the rise of Nazi ideology and anti-Semitism, and his work as a political and social activist in the United States are examined. Students are encouraged to make use of Vassar's Bergreen Collection of original Einstein manuscripts. Mr. Perillan.

Two 75-minute periods.

281b. Gender and Science (1)

(Same as WMST 281) This multidisciplinary course critically examines the intersections between science and the categories of gender, race, class, and sexuality. The course explores the ways that science and culture construct such categories and how the constructions play out in society. We consider how these constructions and the practice of science matter in terms of health care, education, food, the environment, safety, careers, and power in society. We examine the historical and current relationships between "western" science, multicultural sciences, imperialism, and economic globalization. Throughout the course, we ask how the social institution and power of science itself is affected by gender, race, class, and sexuality. For instance, who does science and who decides which projects to pursue and what constitutes a "fact"? Finally, we investigate alternative approaches to constructing knowledge. Ms. Schneiderman.

Two 75-minute periods.

286b. Energy and Nature (1)

(Same as GEOG 286) This course explores how modes of energy production and ideas about nature have influenced one another. We begin with the emergence of Europe and the United States as industrial powers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and we explore how different ideologies of nature emerged and facilitated industrialization. We then consider ways the U.S. rise to global power involved the manufacturing of new landscapes through water projects such as Hoover Dam and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Finally, we analyze the contemporary period of conservationism and globalization, including the expansion of renewable energies, dam removals, and the construction of massive energy projects in emerging economies. To understand the ways concepts of nature have changed, we also examine how engineers, politicians, tourists, community members, and indigenous groups have approached these projects differently and helped to forge new ideologies of nature as a space for energy production.

Prerequisite: one 100-level Geography course, or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

290a or b. Field Work (0.5to1)

298a or b. Independent Work (0.5to1)

Science, Technology and Society: III. Advanced

300a. Senior Thesis (1)

301b. Senior Seminar (0.5)

The seminar meets during the first six weeks of the second semester. Senior majors present and defend their senior theses before the student and faculty members of the program.

302b. History of Science and Technology Since World War II (1)

An examination of major developments in science and technology since 1945, with particular emphasis on the social contexts and implications. The topics to receive special attention are: the origins and growth of systems theories (systems analysis, operations research, game theory, cybernetics), the development of molecular genetics from the double helix to sociobiology; and the evolution of telecommunications technologies.

Prerequisites: 1 unit of natural science and 1 unit of modern history, or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2015/16.

323b. History of Geological Thought: 1690-1980 (1)

(Same as ESCI 323) In this course we examine the historical context and scientific ideas put forth by natural philosophers and scientists including Thomas Burnet, Nicolas Steno, James Hutton, Charles Lyell, Charles Darwin, Alfred Wegener, Marie Tharp, Bruce Heezen, Stephen Jay Gould, Niles Eldredge, James Lovelock and Walter Alvarez. Topics of study include geologic time, continental drift and plate tectonics, evolution and punctuated equilibrium, Gaia, and bolide impacts. Ms. Schneiderman.

Prerequisite: Must be a science or Science, Technology, and Society major at the junior or senior level, or by permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2015/16.

Two 75-minute periods.

331b. Topics in Archaeological Theory and Method (1)

The theoretical underpinnings of anthropological archaeology and the use of theory in studying particular bodies of data. The focus ranges from examination of published data covering topics such as architecture and society, the origin of complex society, the relationship between technology and ecology to more laboratory-oriented examination of such topics as archaeometry, archaeozoology, or lithic technology.

May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

Not offered in 2015/16.

340b. Scientific Debate: Great Scientific Controversies in Context (1)

Who invented calculus? Is light a wave or a particle? Is nature deterministic or probabilistic? What were the 'Science Wars' all about? In the study of animal morphology does function dictate form or is it form that dictates function? These and other controversies have gripped the scientific community over the past 350 years. While the debates have mostly been restricted to a healthy dialog within the scientific community, at times they have aroused passions and sparked lively and even vicious exchanges between scientists. In this seminar we explore the nature of several scientific controversies within their appropriate contexts. In order to grapple with these episodes effectively we examine primary and secondary source materials relating to the particular controversy within its historical context. Mr. Perillan.

Not offered in 2015/16.

One 2-hour period.

350b. Comparative Studies in Religion (1)

(Same as RELI 350) An examination of selected themes, issues, or approaches used in illuminating the religious dimensions and dynamics within particular cultures and societies, with attention to the benefits and limits of the comparative method. Past seminars have focused on such topics as myth, ritual, mysticism, and iconography.

May be taken more than once for credit when content changes.

Prerequisites: one course in Religion, one in Modern American History or one in American Studies.

Not offered in 2015/16.

One 2-hour period.

352b. Medicine and (Dis)order: A Social Geography of Healthcare (1)

(Same as GEOG 352)

Not offered in 2015/16.

One 3-hour period.

353b. Bio-Social Controversy (1)

(Same as SOCI 353) Scientific controversies take place not only within scientific communities but may be joined and waged in public arenas as well. This course is centered around the intense reaction triggered by extension of biological explanations and evolutionary logic to all aspects of contemporary life including race, sex/gender, violence and social behavior in general. Scientific Controversy is a strategic site for analyzing the social dynamics of various disputes including those among biological and cultural anthropologists, academic scientists and transgender activists, and between advocates of divergent views of race and sexual difference. Alternative perspectives -- Darwinian feminism and efforts by transgender biologists to challenge the gender binary -- are also relevant to our conversation. The range of conceptual frames deployed to interpret these controversies includes Popperian philosophy of science, the sociology of Relativism and Rhetoric, and a Foucauldian power/knowledge perspective.  Mr. McAulay.

360b. Issues in Bioethics (1)

Topic for 2015/16b: Bodies into Other Bodies.  This course studies the medical, social, and cultural dimensions surrounding tissue transfer. Advances in reproductive and transplant medicine have radically transformed how we view life and death and self and other. Topics may include: blood and organ donation, definition of death, regenerative medicine, donor-assisted reproduction, and xenotrasplantation. Through a close reading of a variety of texts, including policy and theory, we will shed light on how bodies are transformed, dissected, commodified, and redefined. In the process, we will understand the ethical frameworks surrounding the transformation of our bodies. Class discussion will be built around texts from multiple genres, including bioethics, literature, and philosophy. Mr. Trump.

367b. Mind, Culture, and Biology (1)

(Same as SOCI 367) Increasingly in recent years Darwinian approaches to the analysis of human behavior have emerged at the center of modern science-based opposition to social constructionism and postmodernist thinking. Nowhere is this challenge more pointed than in the use of evolutionary perspectives to explain patterns of human culture. This course examines the deployment of Darwinian social science to account for morality and religion; art and literature; consumerism and consumer culture; sex/gender and standards of beauty. The goal is neither to celebrate nor to dismiss evolutionary psychology and its allies but rather to play Darwinian insights and potentially questionable claims off against those of feminist, Marxist and sociological critics. Mr. McAulay.

Not offered in 2015/16.

370b. Feminism and Environmentalism (1)

(Same as ENST 370 and WMST 370) In this seminar we explore some basic concepts and approaches within feminist environmental analysis paying particular attention to feminist theory and its relevance to environmental issues. We examine a range of feminist research and analysis in 'environmental studies' that is connected by the recognition that gender subordination and environmental destruction are related phenomena. That is, they are the linked outcomes of forms of interactions with nature that are shaped by hierarchy and dominance, and they have global relevance. The course helps students discover the expansive contributions of feminist analysis and action to environmental research and advocacy; it provides the chance for students to apply the contributions of a feminist perspective to their own specific environmental interests. Ms. Schneiderman.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor; WMST 130 recommended.

Not offered in 2015/16.

One 2-hour period.

375b. Gender, Race, and Science (1)

Not offered in 2015/16.

382b. Renewable Energy (1)

This seminar is a careful examination of the renewable energy technologies currently available to replace fossil fuels. Primary attention goes to wind, solar power, hydroelectric power and biomass (including ethanol and biodiesel), with briefer consideration of other renewables such as geothermal and tidal energy. The seminar draws upon such methodologies as the social construction of technology and actor-network theory to understand the interaction of technological, economic, environmental and political factors currently shaping the field of renewable energy.

Prerequisites: STS 200, and two units of natural science; or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2015/16.

One 2-hour period.

385b. Technology, Ecology, and Society (1)

(Same as ENST 385) Examines the interactions between human beings and their environment as mediated by technology, focusing on the period from the earliest evidence of toolmaking approximately up to the Industrial Revolution. Student research projects often bring the course up to the present. Includes experimentation with ancient technologies and field trips to local markets and craft workshops.

Prerequisite: previous coursework in Anthropology, Environmental Studies, or Science, Technology, and Society, or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2015/16.

One 2-hour period; plus 4 hour lab.

399a or b. Senior Independent Work (0.5to1)