History Department

Advisers: The department.

Programs

Major

Correlate Sequence in History

Courses

History: I. Introductory

101a. Martin Luther King Jr. (1)

(Same as AFRS 101) This course examines the life and work of Martin Luther King, Jr. We immediately rethink the image of King who liberals and conservatives construct as a dreamer of better race relations. We engage the complexities of an individual, who articulated a moral compass of the nation, to explore racial justice in post-World War II America. This course gives special attention to King's post-1965 radicalism when he called for a reordering of American society, an end to the war in Vietnam, and supported sanitation workers striking for better wages and working conditions. Topics include King's notion of the "beloved community", the Social Gospel, liberalism, "socially conscious democracy", militancy, the politics of martyrdom, poverty and racial justice, and compensatory treatment. Primary sources form the core of our readings.

Two 75-minute periods.

103a. Hindus and Muslims in Pre-Colonial India (1)

(Same as ASIA 103) We explore the history of Hindu-Muslim relations in India from the first Arab conquests in the 8th century through the 18th century waning of the Mughal Empire. As we examine the documents and events commonly cited as evidence of incompatibility between these major religious communities, we place controversial events, individuals, and trends in context to discover how they were understood in their own time. Our primary sources include royal panegyrics, court chronicles, mystical poetry, and the memoirs of emperors in translation. Ms. Hughes.

Two 75-minute periods.

108a. International Human Rights (1)

(Same as INTL 108) Human rights have become the dominant moral language of our time. Rights are used to help build civil society, to establish international law, to give the oppressed hope, and even to justify foreign military intervention. When we speak of rights, then, we speak of a ubiquitous presence in our world. How did this come to be? This course examines the historical development of international human rights from their definition by the United Nations in 1948 to the present day. Our main questions will be how a powerful discourse of human rights has developed, who has spoken on its behalf, and how human rights claims have intersected with existing political, institutional, and legal structures. Mr. Brigham.

Open only to freshmen; satisfies the college requirement for a Freshman Writing Seminar.

Two 75-minute periods.

116a. The Dark Ages (1)

(Same as MRST 116) Was early medieval Europe really Dark? In reality, this was a period of tremendous vitality and ferment, witnessing the transformation of late classical society, the growth of Germanic kingdoms, the high point of Byzantium, the rise of the papacy and monasticism, and the birth of Islam. This course examines a rich variety of sources that illuminate the first centuries of Christianity, the fall of the Roman Empire, and early medieval culture showing moments of both conflict and synthesis that redefined Europe and the Mediterranean. Ms. Bisaha.

Two 75-minute periods.

120a. Japan's American Revolution, 1945-52 (1)

Many Americans are unaware that Japan was ostensibly run by the US for nearly seven years after World War II. The US Occupation of Japan lasted longer than the war itself, and left indelible imprints upon modern Japanese history that remain visible today. As a grandly ambitious and idealistic project that forced people to be free, the Occupation was riddled with contradictory goals and visions. Democratization, demilitarization, the "Peace Constitution," and ideological reform are among its legacies. So, too, are authoritarianism, miscarriage of justice in the Tokyo Trial, conflicts over new social values, and Japan's unlikely transformation into "America's unsinkable aircraft carrier." We use John W. Dower's Pulitzer Prize winner Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II (Norton, 1999) as a historiographical springboard to discuss the art and science of writing history. Students focus not on learning Japanese or American history as much as developing historical thinking, critical analysis of textual evidence, and effective writing skills.

Fulfills the Freshman Writing Seminar Requirement.

Not offered in 2013/14.

Two 75-minute periods.

121a. Readings in Modern European History (1)

This course explores key developments in European history from the French Revolution in 1789 to the collapse of communism two centuries later. While roughly chronological, the class is not a survey. Readings explore the impact of the French and Industrial revolutions, the rise of nation states, World War I and the Russian revolution, Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, and Europe's Cold War division and continuing, contested integration. Ms. Pohl.

Not offered in 2013/14.

122a. Encounters in Modern East Asia (1)

(Same as ASIA 122) This course introduces the modern history of East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) through various "encounters," not only with each other but also with the world beyond. Employing regional and global perspectives, we explore how East Asia entered a historical phase generally known as "modern" by examining topics such as inter-state relations, trade network, the Jesuit missionary, philosophical inquiries, science and technology, colonialism, imperialism and nationalism. The course begins in the seventeenth-century with challenges against the dynastic regime of each country, traces how modern East Asia emerges through war, commerce, cultural exchange, and imperial expansion and considers some global issues facing the region today. Mr. Song.

Two 75-minute periods.

123a. Europe at the Crossroads, 1500-1789 (1)

Between 1492 and 1789, Europe faced a series of profound challenges and hard choices. Which was more important: individual conscience or religious unity, local or national allegiance, individual enrichment or the welfare of the community? This course explores the way the people of Europe, both rulers and ruled, men and women, responded to the extraordinary changes and challenges of their times. Topics include Spanish unification and the Inquisition, European encounters with the Americas, the Protestant Reformation, the rise of absolutism and republicanism, and the discovery of a new relationship between the earth and the heavens. Ms. Choudhury.

Not offered in 2014/15.

124a. Europe 1945 (1)

On May 8, 1945 the Second World War ended in Europe. After six years of fighting, millions of soldiers and civilians had been killed. The Nazi genocide had led to the brutal murder of millions of Jews and other minorities. Some of Europe's most magnificent cities lay in ruins, while some twenty million refugees, expellees, or displaced persons wandered the highways in search of shelter and security. Readings explore the roots of the war, and how European countries dealt with the destruction, the questions of guilt, collaboration and resistance, and the challenge to create a peaceful Europe in the emerging Cold War order. Ms. Hoehn.

Two 75-minute periods.

125b. Infamy on Trial: Famous Trials in Early Modern Europe (1)

This course examines several of the most famous trials of Europe's early modern period (1500-1700). Each trial allows us to explore how communities and individuals responded to the changing nature of European society during this period of upheaval. Through cases involving all sorts of people---men and women, peasants and kings, we have access to conflicting understandings of authority, family, religion, and gender. The trial of Galileo challenged contemporary understandings of what it meant to be a Christian while the execution of King Charles I raised questions about kingship. By studying criminal cases, we engage with a rich selection of primary sources, such as trial records, contemporary accounts, and private papers. Through these readings, the class investigates how early modern people interpreted crime and justice during moments of crisis. Ms. Choudhury.

Two 75-minute periods.

126a and b. Terrorism in Russia and Eurasia (1)

Terror is a tactic as old as warfare, and it creates many dangers in the present. Sectarians and revolutionaries, powerful states and small regimes, guerillas and jihadists all have carried out bloody attacks and assassinations in the name of religion, liberation, politics, identity, and empowerment. This course explores the use and legacies of terror starting in 1789. We investigate nihilism, Lenin and the Bolsheviks in Russia, the anti-Nazi resistance and guerilla movements, anti-Soviet Afghanistan, Shamil Basaev and Chechnya, Osama Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda, and contemporary global suicide terrorism, taking care to elicit historical connections and breaks between them. We encounter leaders and ordinary people engaged in acts of violence, as well as their victims; we discuss scholarship on the invention of modern terror and state terror, and using their own texts and acts as evidence, we investigate how violent practitioners represent themselves and make claims of transcendence and social transformation. How have they been perceived? What happens when such movements come to power? How do violent campaigns end? Ms. Pohl.

Two 75-minute periods.

128a and b. Europe 1945 - Rethinking History (1/2)

On May 8, 1945 the Second World War ended in Europe. After six years of fighting, millions of soldiers and civilians had been killed. The Nazi genocide had led to the brutal murder of millions of Jews, and other minorities. Some of Europe's most magnificent cities lay in ruins, while some twenty million refugees, expellees, or displaced persons wandered the highways in search of shelter and security. Readings for this class explore how European countries dealt with the aftermath of the war, as well as the questions of guilt, collaboration, and resistance. In particular, readings and discussions focus on the tension between history and memory as Europeans tried to come to terms with the war. Ms. Hoehn.

Second 6-weeks of the fall semester.

Not offered in 2014/15.

One 2-hour meeting.

132a and b. Globalization in Historical Perspective, 1850 to the Present (1)

Commentators tell us that we live in "a global age," but dramatic increases in worldwide contacts---economic and social, political and cultural---are not unique to our time. In the late nineteenth century, for example, steamships, telegraphs, railroads, and even movies fostered an increase of interaction across national boundaries and across oceans that was every bit as remarkable as today's. Using such sources as novels, maps, and picture postcards from the Aran Islands to Senegal, this course explores the modern roots and historical development of globalization.

Not offered in 2014/15.

141a and b. Tradition, History and the African Experience (1)

(Same as AFRS 141) From ancient stone tools and monuments to oral narratives and colonial documents, the course examines how the African past has been recorded, preserved, and transmitted over the generations. It looks at the challenges faced by the historian in Africa and the multi-disciplinary techniques used to reconstruct and interpret African history. Various texts, artifacts, and oral narratives from ancient times to the present are analyzed to see how conceptions and interpretations of African past have changed over time. Mr. Rashid.

Fulfills the Freshman Writing Seminar Requirement.

Not offered in 2014/15.

151a. British History: James I (1603) to the Great War (1)

This course explores the central developments in Britain from the age of Shakespeare to the age of total war. We study the political and scientific revolutions of the seventeenth century, the eighteenth-century rise of commercial society and the "British" nation, and the effects of industrialization on Britain's landscape, society, and politics. The course concludes by exploring how the First World War transformed British society. Ms. Murdoch.

160a or b. American Moments: Rediscovering U.S. History (1)

This is not your parents'---or your high school teacher's---American history course. No textbook: Instead we read memoirs, novels, newspaper articles, letters, speeches, photographs, and films composed by a colorful, diverse cast of characters---famous and forgotten, slaves and masters, workers and bosses. No survey: Instead we pause to look at several illuminating "moments" from the colonial era through the Civil War to civil rights and the Cold War. Traveling from the Great Awakening to the "awakening" that was the 1960s, from an anticolonial rebellion that Americans won (1776) to another that they lost (Vietnam), the course challenges assumptions about America's past---and perhaps also a few about America's present and future. The department.

161a. From Gold Rush to Dust Bowl: Writing the American Frontier (1)

This course considers episodes in the history of the United States and its Western frontiers from the California Gold Rush through the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. Themes include economic risk-taking and cycles of boom and bust; racial and interpersonal violence; forced removal of native peoples and their responses; frontier myth-making; and the emergence of a wilderness ethos. As students investigate different strategies for telling about the past, readings include eyewitness accounts, historical narratives, and works of fiction. Ms. Edwards.

Open only to Freshmen; satisfies college requirement for a Freshman Writing Seminar.

Two 75-minute periods.

162a. Envisioning Latin America (1)

How have people come to see Latin America since it first entered the European consciousness at the end of the fifteenth century? How have the people of Latin America themselves deflected and recast the "imperial eye"? This course explores Latin America ca. 1500-ca. 2010s through the writings of outside observers--explorers, bureaucrats, Enlightenment scientists, traders and investors, ethnographers---to uncover the process of producing an exoticized vision of a region open to economic expansion and empire. We also explore Latin American self-representations, drawing on colonial-era indigenous and creole letters and reports, post-colonial poetry and novels, government-sponsored pavilions at international expositions, and official tourist campaigns. Along the way, we address several central themes in Latin American history---race and ethnicity, gender, nation building (as both a political and a cultural project)---considered within the conceptual frame of transculturation. Ms. Offutt.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

174a. The Emergence of the Modern Middle East (1)

An exploration of the Middle East over the past three centuries. Beginning with economic and social transformations in the eighteenth century, we follow the transformation of various Ottoman provinces such as Egypt, Syria/Lebanon, and Algeria into modern states, paying careful attention to how European colonialism shaped their development. We then look at independence movements and the post-colonial societies that have emerged since the middle of the twentieth century, concluding with study of colonialism's lingering power---and the movements that confront it. Mr. Schreier.

Fulfills the Freshman Writing Seminar Requirement.

Not offered in 2014/15.

175b. Mandela: Race, Resistance and Renaissance in South Africa (1)

(Same as AFRS 175) This course critically explores the history and politics of South Africa in the twentieth century through the prism of the life, politics, and experiences of one of its most iconic figures, Nelson Mandela. After almost three decades of incarceration for resisting Apartheid, Mandela became the first democratically elected president of a free South Africa in 1994. It was an inspirational moment in the global movement and the internal struggle to dismantle Apartheid and to transform South Africa into a democratic, non-racial, and just society. Using Mandela's autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom, as our point of departure, the course discusses some of the complex ideas, people, and developments that shaped South Africa and Mandela's life in the twentieth century, including: indigenous culture, religion, and institutions; colonialism, race, and ethnicity; nationalism, mass resistance, and freedom; and human rights, social justice, and post-conflict reconstruction. Mr. Rashid.

Two 75-minute periods.

180a. Ecological Gandhi (1)

(Same as ENST 180) Was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - better known as Mahatma Gandhi - an environmentalist? Was he an ecologist? This "Great Soul" lived and worked at the very moment when modern ideas of ecology first emerged. His inspirations included Henry David Thoreau, a familiar icon of American environmentalism, and Henry Salt, an English advocate of vegetarianism and animal rights. He disapproved of machines, cautioned against overconsumption, made his own salt, and spun his own yarn. Famous environmental philosophers, activists, and politicians including Arne Naess, Vandana Shiva, and India's newly elected Prime Minister Narendra Modi, all credit him as their inspiration. We search for answers (and discover controvery) in the authors who inspired Gandhi, in his own works, and in the publications of those he inspired. Ms. Hughes.

Open only to freshmen; satisfies the college requirement for a Freshman Writing Seminar.

Two 75-minute periods.

181a. Russia, Ukraine, and the Steppe (1)

This course introduces students to the history of the Russians and their neighbors on the Eurasian Steppe, a vast region that stretches from Ukraine to Kazakhstan. Topics include the relations between Russians and Ukrainians and nomadic and semi-nomadic people (Tatars, Kazakhs, Cossacks), the great steppe empires, the imposition of serfdom, the uprisings of the steppe (1660s and 1916), and the complex mix of violence and development that was unleashed in the Soviet period, including famines, forced cultural change, and industrialization. We will also consider the connections between the cultural and political history of this region and current events, such as the creation of a new Eurasian Union. Course materials include history texts, memoirs, fiction, newspapers, Soviet and post-Soviet films, and maps. Course participants practice writing regularly, with an emphasis on discussing and constructing arguments, finding and using evidence, and comparing perspectives and points of view (American, Russian, Ukrainian, Central Asian). Ms. Pohl.

Open only to freshmen; satisfies the college requirement for a Freshman Writing Seminar.

Two 75-minute periods.

History: II. Intermediate

The prerequisite for courses at the 200-level is ordinarily 1 unit in history.

204b. Independent India: 1947-1990s (1)

(Same as ASIA 204) When India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru looked at the new nation in 1947, he saw "unity in diversity." When Nobel Prize winning author V. S. Naipal looked again in 1990, he saw "a million mutinies now." We investigate the major political, social, communal, and environmental struggles that South Asian peoples have engaged in since winning their independence from the British. The political integration of seventeen provinces and some five hundred princely states that began in 1947 continues today in movements demanding reorganization on linguistic, tribal, and economic grounds. Meanwhile, diplomatic, territorial, and resource-driven conflicts embroil India with its neighbors to the north and south, while nations farther afield apply pressure and deliver conditional aid. Dalits, women, LGBTQ communities, rural folk, and minorities take their struggles to the streets and the Supreme Court, while religious factions try to live in peace or to suppress one another. Foreign elites, educated urbanites, and rural folk forge tentative alliances to demand environmental justice. As we study India's struggles, we gain crucial insight into Indian secularism, communal violence, caste politics, gender norms, and the challenges of development and globalization. Ms. Hughes.

Two 75-minute periods.

208b. Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy Since 1945 (1)

This course examines U.S. National Security issues through the prism of human rights, weaving humanitarian concerns into the fabric of traditional security studies. We survey the most important literature and debates concerning the concepts of human rights and the U.S. national interest. We also use case studies to explore the intersection of human rights, economic aims, strategic concerns, and peace building. In addition, we will test the consistency of U.S. guiding principles, the influence of non-state actors on policy formation, and the strength of the international human rights regime. Mr. Brigham.

Two 75-minute periods.

214b. The Roots of the Palestine-Israel Conflict (1)

(Same as JWST 214) An examination of the deep historical sources of the Palestine-Israel conflict. The course begins some two centuries ago when changes in the world economy and emerging nationalist ideologies altered the political and economic landscapes of the region. It then traces the development of both Jewish and Arab nationalism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries before exploring how the Arab and Jewish populations fought---and cooperated---on a variety of economic, political, and ideological fronts. It concludes by considering how this contest led to the development of two separate, hostile national identities. Mr. Schreier.

Not offered in 2014/15.

215b. The High Middle Ages, c. 950-1300 (1)

This course examines medieval Europe at both its cultural and political height. Topics of study include: the first universities; government from feudal lordships to national monarchies; courtly and popular culture; manorial life and town life; the rise of papal monarchy; new religious orders and spirituality among the laity. Relations with religious outsiders are explored in topics on European Jewry, heretics, and the Crusades. Ms. Bisaha.

Not offered in 2014/15.

216b. History of the Ancient Greeks (1)

(Same as GRST 216) This course examines the history and culture of the ancient Greeks from the emergence of the city-state in the eighth century BCE to the conquests of Alexander the Great in 335 BCE. In addition to an outline of the political and social history of the Greeks, the course examines several historical, cultural, and methodological topics in depth, including the emergence of writing, Greek colonialism and imperialism, ancient democracy, polytheism, the social structures of Athenian society, and the relationship between Greeks and other Mediterranean cultures. Students both read primary sources (for example, Sappho, Tyrtaios, Herodotus, Thucydides, Aristophanes, and Plato) and examine sites and artifacts recovered through archaeology; the development of students' critical abilities to evaluate and use these sources for the study of history is a primary goal of the class. Mr. Lott.

217b. History of the Ancient Romans (1)

(Same as GRST 217) This course examines the history of the ancient Romans from the foundation of their city around the eighth century BCE to the collapse of their Mediterranean Empire in the fifth century CE. The course offers a broad historical outline of Roman history, but focuses on significant topics and moments in Roman history, including the Republican aristocracy, the civil and slave wars of the Late Republic, the foundation of the Empire by Caesar Augustus, urbanism, the place of public entertainments (gladiatorial combats, Roman hunts, chariot races, and theater) in society, the rise of Christianity, the processes of Romanization, and barbarization, and the political decline and fall of the Roman Empire. Students read primary sources such as Plautus, Cicero, Livy, Tacitus, and Suetonius, and secondary accounts dealing with important issues such as slavery, religious persecution and multiculturalism. Students also examine important archaeological sites and artifacts. The development of students' critical abilities to evaluate and use these sources for the study of history is a primary goal of the class. Mr. Lott.

Alternate years.Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

218b. The Crusades, 1095-1291 (1)

The Crusades, conceived by Latin Christians as a military enterprise to conquer the Holy Land from its Muslim rulers, created a complex relationship between East and West. It brought Latins, Greeks, Muslims, and Jews together in unprecedented ways, allowing for fruitful exchange and long periods of coexistence between periods of violence. This course examines holy war in the Near East, Spain, and Eastern Europe, but it also dwells on related issues including trade and travel, cultural attitudes and relations, religious interactions and conflicts between faiths, and literary and artistic developments. Ms. Bisaha.

Two 75-minute periods.

220b. Medieval and Renaissance Culture (1)

(Same as MRST 220 and WMST 220) Topic for 2014/15b: Sex, Power, and Resistance in the Renaissance. From the fifteenth century until the end of the seventeenth century, European women and men argued about the nature and status of woman and their debates still engage us today. Critically, this period represents a shift in thinking about women. We examine literature, treatises, and polemical works that reveal how the discussion shifted from theological to biological definitions of woman. How did people in the Renaissance articulate biological and intellectual differences between men and women? How did they view sexual identity? Furthermore, women, such as Isabella of Castile, Elizabeth I, and Catherine de Medici, became powerful rulers, as a result of hereditary accidents, which gave greater urgency to the definition of power and gender. While many women accepted the more conventional patriarchal framework, others resisted and challenged the denigration of woman through writing, legal action and work. Ms. Choudhury.

Two 75-minute periods.

224b. Wars in 20th Century East Asia (1)

This course examines social, economic, political, cultural and military aspects of the four major Asian wars of the last century: the Pacific War, the Chinese Civil War, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. We begin with definitions of war and the conundrum of just and unjust wars. We next examine alternative interpretations of the origins of war in Asia, including the perspectives of international relations, the social origins, and culture and racism. This is not a course in military history; instead, we pay special attention to the organic socio-historical linkages that connected those four wars. We also examine the domestic side of each war in the U.S. and China, as both countries were deeply involved in all the four wars. The ongoing competitions among East Asian countries and the U.S. in the west Pacific region constitute a backdrop for this course. Students are encouraged to follow them in the newspapers and online and to bring their own observations to the class. Mr. Song.

Two 75-minute periods.

225b. Renaissance Italy (1)

This course examines the history of Italy between 1300 and 1565. Italian intellectual, political, and religious history is emphasized, but some attention is also given to cross-cultural, gender, and social history. Looking beyond Italy, we also consider developments in Byzantium and the Ottoman Empire and their impact on Italy and Europe. Topics to be covered include the Black Death, the rise of humanism, the Renaissance papacy, and the Catholic Reformation. Finally, throughout the course, we question the meaning of the term "Renaissance": is it a distinct period, a cultural movement, or an insufficient label altogether? Ms. Bisaha.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

226b. Northern Europe in the Renaissance, c. 1300-1550 (1)

As a famous scholar has argued, the north witnessed a long "autumn of the Middle Ages," holding tightly to medieval ideals of chivalry, pageantry, and piety -- precisely at the same time Italy seemed to be forging ahead into modernity. Yet by the end of the period, Northern states overshadowed Italy politically, economically and, increasingly, culturally. This course examines Northern Europe during this remarkable period of transformation. The Hundred Years War, the Black Death, the Tudors, French and German state building and court life, and urban society in Flanders, are addressed along with the poetry of Chaucer, the humanism of More and Erasmus, and the doctrine of Luther. In turn, we examine the complex meanings of the terms "Renaissance" and "Reformation" and the relationship between them. Ms. Bisaha.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

230a. From Tyranny to Terror: The Old Regime and the French Revolution (1)

Eighteenth-century France was a society in transition, a society in which social and cultural ideals and realities were increasingly at odds. The tensions within society and the state finally erupted into the cataclysmic French Revolution, which paved the way for modern political life. Using primary and secondary sources, this course focuses on topics such as the social structure of the Old Regime, the Enlightenment, and the volatile political climate preceding the revolution. We examine different interpretations of what caused the French Revolution as well as the dynamics of the Revolution itself between 1789 and 1799. Ms. Choudhury.

231a. France and its "Others" (1)

Over the last two centuries, France has had a complicated relationship with difference. This course traces modern French history with a particular eye towards the place of various "others" in the nation. Of special interest are Jews, Muslims, women, and Africans. In addition to certain central texts, the course considers writing by French revolutionaries, feminists, colonialists, and racists to get a better idea of how various people have framed debates about difference. We conclude in recent times, using films, novels, and music to sketch the contours of multi-cultural France. Mr. Schreier.

Not offered in 2013/14.

235b. Ending Deadly Conflict (1)

(Same as INTL 235) This course uses historical case studies to identify practical ways to end conflict and build sustainable peace. It is concerned with the vulnerability of the weak, failed and collapsed states, with post conflict periods that have reignited into violence, and problems of mediating conflicts that are unusually resistant to resolution. Of particular interest will be the role that third party intermediaries and global governance institutions have played in bringing about a negotiated end to violence. Major topics may include: the Paris Peace Accords, South Africa's truth and reconciliation commissions, the Good Friday Agreement, Israel-Palestine negotiations, the Dayton Peace Accords ending the Balkans wars, and negotiations to end the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Mr. Brigham.

Two 75-minute periods.

236a. Germany, 1740-1918 (1)

This course covers the history of the German lands from 1740 to the end of World War I. Aside from providing a chronological political narrative, assigned readings focus in greater detail on a number of themes to illuminate the specific character of German history. Topics include: the demise of the universalist idea of the Holy Roman Empire; the German Enlightenment and the legacy of enlightened absolutism on state/society relations; the impact of the Napoleonic revolution; the failures of 1848; the Prussian-led unification; the legacy of Bismarck's domestic policies on German political culture and social life; German imperialism and World War I. Ms. Höehn.

237a. Germany, 1918-1990 (1)

This course covers German history from the end of World War I to the 1990 unification that ended the post--World War II split of German society into East and West. Aside from familiarizing you with a narrative of German political, social, and cultural history, the readings also explore some of the so-called "peculiarities" of German history. Did Bismarck's unification from above and the pseudo-constitutional character of the Second Reich create a political culture that set the country on a Sonderweg (special path) of modernization ending in the catastrophe of Auschwitz? Why did Weimar, Germany's first experiment with democracy, fail, and why is Bonn not Weimar? Finally, what road will the new Germany take within Europe and the world?

Not offered in 2014/15.

242a. Russia and the Steppe to 1800 (1)

This course introduces major events and issues in the history of the Russians and their neighbors to the South and East. The main themes each week include the formation of Russia's autocracy and nobility, Eurasian family/clan politics and cultural practices, and the connection between expansion and repression. Topics include the great steppe empires, Russia as part of the Golden Horde (1240-1480), the era of Ivan the Terrible and his conquest of the Tatars of the Volga, the Time of Troubles, the conquest of Siberia, the imposition of serfdom, westernization and globalization of the Russian Empire under Peter the Great, relations with the Ottoman Empire under Russia's female tsarinas, the conquest of the Caucasus, and the history of the Cossacks. Ms. Pohl.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

243b. Russia and the Soviet Union, 1861-2000 (1)

This course explores how Russians and their neighbors (Ukrainians, Poles, Kazakhs, and others) collectively encountered the age of revolutions and socialism. The beginning and the end of the Soviet Union in 1917 and in 1991 pitted national dreams against socialist ideology and Western-style shock therapy, and both were followed by decades of economic troubles and political chaos. Topics include the emancipation from serfdom, the Bolshevik revolution, Stalinism, the Communist Party and the purges, the victory over the Nazis in World War II, reforms under Khrushchev and Gorbachev, the fall of communism, oligarchic politics, and the rebirth of Russia and the war in Chechnya under Yeltsin and Putin. Ms. Pohl.

Two 75-minute periods.

251a. A History of American Foreign Relations (1)

This course examines the foreign relations of the United States from the 19th century to the present day emphasizing the motivations, objectives, and tactics of U.S. policy makers. The course will focus on America's role in the Spanish-American War; its embroilment in two world wars; its Cold War struggle with the Soviet Union; its wars in Korea and Vietnam; its response to human rights abuses and mass atrocities; and its leadership in the global war on terror. Mr. Brigham.

252a. Imagining India: Colonial Experience and the Pathways to Independence (1)

(Same as ASIA 252) This course introduces major events and figures of colonial South Asia by exploring how everyday Indian identities were constituted under British imperialism from 1757 through 1947. Topics include nationalism, gender, caste, and Hindu-Muslim relations. Alongside influential scholarship on colonialism, nationalism, and identity, we read government reports and political speeches, poetry and petitions, autobiographies and travelogues. Ms. Hughes.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

253a. The Jungle in Indian History (1)

(Same as ASIA 253) When pre-modern Indians used the Sanskrit word for jungle (jangala), they didn't imagine trees or tigers; they pictured open savannah and antelope. When modern Indians speak of the jungle, they think of forests and wilderness. Why did the jungle change its identity and how does its transformation relate to developments in South Asian environments, politics, culture, and society? We read classical Indian literature alongside colonial and post-colonial natural histories, works of fiction, activist polemics and forestry treatises. Ms. Hughes.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

254a. Victorian Britain (1)

(Same as URBS 254) This course examines some of the key transformations that Victorians experienced, including industrialization, the rise of a class-based society, political reform, and the women's movement. We explore why people then, and historians since, have characterized the Victorian age as a time of progress and optimism as well as an era of anxiety and doubt. Ms. Murdoch.

Not offered in 2014/15.

255a. The British Empire (1)

This course is an introduction to British imperialism from the mid-eighteenth century to the present, with particular attention to Britain's involvement in Ireland, the Caribbean, India, and Africa. We examine British motives for imperialism, the transition from trade empires to more formal political control, and the late nineteenth-century "scramble for Africa." Other main topics include responses to colonialism, the growth of nationalism, decolonization, and the effects of an increasingly multi-cultural domestic population on Britain. Throughout the course we explore the empire as a cultural exchange: the British influenced the lives of colonial subjects, but the empire also shaped British identity at home and abroad. Ms. Murdoch.

Not offered in 2014/15.

259a. The History of the Family in Early Modern Europe (1)

(Same as WMST 259) This course examines the changing notions of family, marriage, and childhood between 1500 and 1800 and their ties to the larger early modern context. During this period, Europeans came to see the family less as a network of social and political relationships and more as a set of bonds based on intimacy and affection. Major topics include family and politics in the Italian city-state, the Reformation and witchcraft, absolutism, and paternal authority, and the increasing importance of the idea of the nuclear family. Ms. Choudhury.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

260b. Sex & Reproduction in 19th Century United States: Before Margaret Sanger (1)

(Same as WMST 260) Focusing on the United States from roughly 1800 to 1900, this course explores sex and reproduction and their relationship to broader transformations in society, politics, and women's rights. Among the issues considered are birth patterns on the frontier and in the slave South; industrialization, urbanization, and falling fertility; the rise of sex radicalism; and the emergence of "heterosexual" and "homosexual" as categories of identity. The course examines public scandals, such as the infamous Beecher-Tilton adultery trial, and the controversy over education and women's health that was prompted by the opening of Vassar College. The course ends by tracing the complex impact of the Comstock law (1873) and the emergence of a modern movement for birth control. Ms. Edwards.

Two 75-minute periods.

261a. Women in 20th Century America (1)

(Same as WMST 261) How did class, race, and ethnicity combine with gender to shape women's lives in the twentieth century? Beginning in 1890 and ending at the turn of this century, this course looks at changes in female employment patterns, how women from different backgrounds combined work and family responsibilities and women's leisure lives. We also study women's activism on behalf of political rights, moral reform, racial and economic equality, and reproductive rights. Readings include memoirs, novels, government documents, and feminist political tracts. Ms. Cohen.

Two 75-minute periods.

262a. Contesting Colonialism: Latin America 1450 - 1750 (1)

This course examines the pre-Columbian worlds of Mesoamerica and the Andean region, then turns to a treatment of the consequences of contact between those worlds and the European. Special emphasis is placed on the examination of mindsets and motives of colonizer and colonized and the quest for identity in the American context (both issues intimately related to questions of race and ethnicity), the struggle to balance concerns for social justice against the search for profits, the evolution of systems of labor appropriation, the expansion of the mining sector, and the changing nature of land exploitation and tenure. Ms. Offutt.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

263a. From Colony to Nation: Latin America in the Nineteenth Century (1)

This course treats the transition from colony to nation in Spanish and Portuguese America. In part a thematic course treating such topics as the Liberal/Conservative struggles of the early nineteenth century, the consequences of latifundism, the abolition of slavery, and the impact of foreign economic penetration and industrialization, it also adopts a national approach, examining the particular historical experiences of selected nations. Ms. Offutt.

Not offered in 2014/15.

264a. The Revolutionary Option? Latin America in the Twentieth Century (1)

This course investigates why certain Latin American nations in the twentieth century opted for revolution and others adopted a more conservative course. It examines the efforts of selected Latin American nations (Mexico, Cuba, Chile, Nicaragua, Guatemala) to address the tremendous social and economic cleavages affecting them, with special attention paid to material, political, class, and cultural structures shaping their experiences. Ms. Offutt.

265a. African American History to 1865 (1)

(Same as AFRS 265) This course provides an introduction to African American history from the Atlantic slave trade through the Civil War. African Americans had a profound effect on the historical development of the nation. The experiences of race and slavery dominate this history and it is the complexities and nuances of slavery that give this course its focus. This course examines key developments and regional differences in the making of race and slavery in North America, resistance movements among slaves and free blacks (such as slave revolts and the abolitionist movement) as they struggled for freedom and citizenship, and the multiple ways race and gender affected the meanings of slavery and freedom. This course is designed to encourage and develop skills in the interpretation of primary and secondary sources. Mr. Mills.

Not offered in 2014/15.

267a. African American History, 1865-Present (1)

(Same as AFRS 267) This course examines some of the key issues in African American history from the end of the civil war to the present by explicating selected primary and secondary sources. Major issues and themes include: Reconstruction and the meaning of freedom, military participation and ideas of citizenship, racial segregation, migration, labor, cultural politics, and black resistance and protest movements. This course is designed to encourage and develop skills in the interpretation of primary sources, such as letters, memoirs, and similar documents. The course format, therefore, consists of close reading and interpretation of selected texts, both assigned readings and handouts. Course readings are supplemented with music and film. Mr. Mills.

Not offered in 2014/15.

270b. The Black Power Movement (1)

(Same as AFRS 270) This course examines the Black Power Movement as a burgeoning social movement in the post World War II period, while also placing it in the long traditions of black political thought and radicalism within American democracy. In addition to studying black radicalism in the early twentieth century, the course explores the philosophies and tactics of civil rights activism; questions of feminism and masculinity; radicalism and conservatism; violence, nonviolence, and self-defense; and community control, nationalism, and internationalism. Major sites of inquiry include education, arts and media, police brutality, welfare rights, electoral politics, and economic empowerment. By engaging the ideologies, politics, and culture of the Black Power Movement, we gain a deeper understanding of how people claim their rights and personhood against seemingly insurmountable odds. Mr. Mills.

Two 75-minute periods.

271b. Perspectives on the African Past: Africa Before 1800 (1)

(Same as AFRS 271) A thematic survey of African civilizations and societies to 1800. The course examines how demographic and technological changes, warfare, religion, trade, and external relations shaped the evolution of the Nile Valley civilizations, the East African city-states, the empires of the western Sudan, and the forest kingdoms of West Africa. Some attention is devoted to the consequences of the Atlantic slave trade, which developed from Europe's contact with Africa from the fifteenth century onwards. Mr. Rashid.

Not offered in 2014/15.

272b. Modern African History (1)

(Same as AFRS 272) Africa has experienced profound transformations over the past two centuries. Between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Africans lost and regained their independence from different European colonial powers. This course explores the changing African experiences before, during, and after European colonization of their continent. Drawing on primary sources, film, memoirs, and popular novels, we look at the creative responses of African groups and individuals to the contradictory processes and legacies of colonialism. Particular attention will be paid to understanding how these responses shape the trajectories of African as well as global developments. Amongst the major themes covered by the course are: colonial ideologies, African resistance, colonial economies, gender and cultural change, African participation in the two world wars, urbanization, decolonization and African nationalism. We also reflect on some of the contemporary developmental dilemmas as well as opportunities confronting post-colonial Africa. Mr. Rashid.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

274a. Beyond Jamestown and Plymouth Rock: Revisiting, Revising, and Reviving Early America (1)

Without ignoring the Pilgrims, Pocahontas, and other popular icons of colonial times, this course will put them into a larger context of what unfolded between 1500 and 1750 when three worlds bordering the Atlantic---western Europe, west Africa, and eastern North America---first came together. The new American world that emerged from this momentous encounter was at once stranger and more interesting than conventional wisdom would have it. Slaves who became free and Indians who became Puritan, con men who tricked gullible colonists and pious folk who heckled learned ministers---these and other forgotten actors join the usual suspects (Saints and witches, John Smith and Benjamin Franklin) on a crowded colonial stage. While keeping in mind that the genesis of America today can be found in that long-ago era---the tangled roots of race relations, the curious blend of materialism and lofty ideals, the boisterous political culture, the freedom for self-fashioning---we will take early America as much as possible on its own terms rather than on ours. Mr. Merrell.

Two 75-minute periods.

275a. U.S. History's Greatest Mystery: Revolutionary America, 1750-1830 (1)

In 1815 John Adams asked Thomas Jefferson: "Who shall write the history of the American Revolution? Who can write it? Who will ever be able to write it?" "Nobody," Jefferson replied. As these two men knew, the American Revolution ranks high among history's mysteries. Why did a prosperous people get so mad about a modest tax increase? How did a scattered, squabbling array of colonies, who felt closer to Great Britain than to one another, unite sufficiently to declare independence from the "mother country" in 1776? How did they then defeat the greatest military power of the age while also contending with dissension in their own ranks, rebellious slaves in their midst, and powerful Indian nations at their backs? How, having won independence, did the victors avoid tyranny, civil war, or re-colonization while other Americans---poor men, white women, Native peoples, the enslaved---busily tested the elasticity of the phrase "all men are created equal"? Exploring these questions, we will also keep in mind a historian's recent observation that this era "bequeathed us many of the values and institutions...that are now sites of important political, social, and ideological conflicts." Mr. Merrell.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

276a. Democracy in America? U.S. Politics and Power, 1828-1896 (1)

Tracing economic and political transformations in the nineteenth century United States, this course explores struggles over industrialization, sectional interests, continental conquest, and nation-building. Key topics include the "white man's democracy" of the Jacksonian era; rise of the Republican Party; the Civil War; Emancipation and national Reconstruction; expansion and conflict in the trans-Mississippi West; the emergence of modern corporate capitalism; and labor and agrarian protest. Particular attention is given to electoral politics and public policy. Comparisons with other nineteenth-century nations and empires are made. Ms. Edwards.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

277a. The Making of the (1)

(Same as URBS 277) In 1941, Henry Luce, the publisher of Time and Life magazines, proclaimed the twentieth as "America's century." In comparison to the rest of the world, he noted, the United States was richer in material goods, with more opportunities for leisure. This course covers the major social, political, and cultural developments during the decades when the US emerged as the preeminent industrial power. We look closely at changes in the social and political institutions which emerged out of the crises of the 1890s, the Great Depression, and World War II. We also pay attention to the growth of mass consumption and mass leisure in this very diverse society. Among the sources we study are memoirs, government documents, political tracts, and popular films. Ms. Cohen.

278a. Cold War America (1)

Following the Second World War, many Americans expected the United States to create a better world abroad and a more equitable society at home. We examine those expectations along with the major social, political, cultural, and economic changes in the United States since 1945, including the dawn of the cold war, McCarthyism, surbanization, high-mass consumption, civil rights, the Vietnam War, and the environmental movement. Mr. Brigham.

Not offered in 2014/15.

279a. The Viet Nam War (1)

An examination of the origins, course, and impact of America's involvement in Viet Nam, emphasizing the evolution of American diplomacy, the formulation of military strategy, the domestic impact of the war, and the perspective of Vietnamese revolutionaries. Mr. Brigham.

Not offered in 2014/15.

283b. U.S. Consumer Culture (1)

(Same as AMST 283) This course examines the rise of consumer culture in twentieth century America. This culture has flourished, in part, because consumer capitalism has continuously transformed everyday wants into needs. We explore how the growth of mass production, advertising, department stores, shopping malls, modern technologies, and imperialism have shaped the nation's desire for goods and pleasure. Americans' relationships with these commodities and services reveal how people have come to understand themselves as consumers (staking claims to the ability to consume as a function of citizenship) and how consumption has shaped their lives (where they have defined themselves by what they buy). We take a chronological and thematic approach to contextualize the culture of consumption, in its many forms, across time and space. Mr. Mills.

Two 75-minute periods.

290a or b. Field Work (1/2to1)

Individual or group field projects, especially in local, state, or federal history. May be taken either semester or in summer. The department.

Prerequisite or corequisite: an appropriate course in the department.

Permission required.

297a or b. Readings In History (1/2to1)

298a or b. Independent Work (1/2to1)

Permission required.

History: III. Advanced

Prerequisite for advanced courses is ordinarily 2 units of 200-level work in history, or by permission of the instructor. Specific prerequisites assume the general prerequisite.

300a. Thesis Preparation: Sources, Methods, and Interpretations (1)

As a yearlong independent research project, a senior history thesis can be an exhilarating but also challenging experience. Many questions must be considered: How do I clearly define my research question? How do I locate my work within the existing scholarship in my field? Where are the most relevant sources? How do I organize and interpret the information that I have uncovered? This seminar provides the opportunity for students to grapple with these questions and to prepare for writing their senior history thesis. Through a common set of readings and workshops, students develop clear research ideas and questions, locate necessary sources, become acquainted with different historical methods, and discuss strategies for different stages of the process. The seminar also provides a community in which students share their experiences, approaches, and ideas about researching and writing their theses.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

301b. Senior Thesis (1)

This 1-unit course, which builds on the work done in HIST 300, culminates in the completion and submission of a thesis that is approximately 10,000 words long. The department.

Yearlong course HIST 300-301.

302a. Senior Thesis (1)

This 1-unit course, which builds on the work done in HIST 300, culminates in the completion and submission of a thesis that is approximately 10,000 words long. The department.

Same as HIST 301, for students who are completing the thesis out of cycle. Please note that 302 cannot be taken simultaneously with HIST 300.

304b. Approaching the Taj Mahal (1)

(Same as ASIA 304) What lies behind the legendary beauty and romance of the Taj Mahal? To understand the monument from its 17th century construction through modern times, we look beyond the building to its wider historical and historiographical contexts. In addition to the key primary sources, we critique scholarly and popular literature inspired by the Taj. Throughout, we ask how these sources have influenced what people see when they look at the Taj Mahal. Ms. Hughes.

One 2-hour period.

305b. People and Animal Histories in Modern India (1)

(Same as ASIA 305 and ENST 305) This course examines human interactions with animals in India from the colonial period through the present. How have various groups and important individuals defined the proper relationship between themselves and the animals around them? What challenges and advantages have animals and people met with as a result? As we explore how people have served their social, political, economic, national, and religious interests through animals, we learn how human values and beliefs about animals have in turn helped shape Indian environments. We read a variety of primary sources by Indians and Englishmen in South Asia, ranging from children's literature through the writings of bird fanciers, big game hunters, and early animal rights advocates. Ms. Hughes.

Not offered in 2014/15.

One 2-hour period.

308b. Humanitarian Intervention (1)

The principle that troops should sometimes be sent to prevent the slaughter of innocent foreigners is anything but new. With deep roots in the 19th century, humanitarian intervention has been a relatively familiar practice in international affairs. This seminar examines the history of that practice and principle to the present day. We explore the transnational activists who campaigned against bloodshed abroad, the debates over the efficacy of military intervention in the name of human rights, the theoretical underpinnings of the concept of humanitarianism, specific case studies (Greece, Bulgaria, Bosnia, Rwanda, Iraq, Libya, and Syria to name a few), and the U.N. Responsibility to Protect doctrine. Mr. Brigham.

Not offered in 2014/15.

One 2-hour period.

316b. Constantinople/Istanbul: 1453 (1)

(Same as URBS 316) This seminar examines a turning point in history-the end of the Byzantine Empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire. The focus is the siege of Constantinople as seen in primary accounts and modem studies. The course also looks closely at culture and society in late Byzantium and the early Ottoman Empire. Specific topics include the post-1453 Greek refugee community, the transformation of Constantinople into Istanbul, and the role of Western European powers and the papacy as allies and antagonists of both empires. Ms. Bisaha.

Not offered in 2014/15.

One 2-hour period.

326a. Machiavelli (1)

This course examines the life and writings of one of the most fascinating and misunderstood thinkers of the early modern era. By situating Machiavelli (1469-1527) against the backdrop of his times, we gain insight into the Florentine Republic, Medici rule, the papacy, and devastating invasions of Italy by French, Spanish, and German armies. We also explore cultural movements like the study of antiquity by humanists and the rise of vernacular writing and bold new forms of popular expression and political discourse. Several of Machiavelli's works are read, including his letters and plays, The PrinceThe DiscoursesThe Art of War, and The Florentine Histories, as well as some of the major modern interpretations of Machiavelli in historiography and political thought. Ms. Bisaha.

One 2-hour period.

332a. Dangerous Ideas: Challenging Authority in Eighteenth-Century France (1)

In the years leading up to the French Revolution, authorities were obsessed with the spread of dangerous ideas that threatened church, state and traditional social values. Seeking to overhaul society completely, a diverse group of thinkers commonly associated with the Enlightenment examined all aspects of human existence, from religion, politics, and science to crime, sex, and art. This course emphasizes primary sources, ranging from The Social Contract to Dangerous Liaisons. We consider the impact of ideas and words by examining the spaces for discussion, the dissemination of books, and reader response. Ultimately, we ask the following: What was the legacy of the various critiques for the French Revolution and, more generally, the modern era? Ms. Choudhury.

Not offered in 2014/15.

337b. The Rise and Fall of Nazi Germany (1)

This course explores the Third Reich by locating it within the peculiar nature of German political culture resulting from late unification and rapid industrialization. Readings explore how and why the Nazis emerged as a mass party during the troubled Weimar years. The years between 1933 and 1945 are treated by focusing on Nazi domestic, foreign, and racial policies. Ms. Höhn.

Prerequisite: HIST 236 or HIST 237; or permission of the instructor.

One 2-hour period.

338b. German-American Encounters since WW I (1)

This seminar explores the many ways in which Germans envisioned, feared, and embraced America in the course of the twentieth century. We start our readings with WWI and its aftermath, when German society was confronted and, as some feared, overwhelmed, by an influx of American soldiers, expatriates, industry, and popular culture. The Nazi Regime promised to overcome Weimar modernity and the alleged Americanization of German society, but embraced nonetheless aspects of American modernity in its quest to dominate Europe militarily and economically. For the period after WWII, we study in depth the U.S. military occupation (1945-1955), the almost seventy-year lasting military presence in West Germany, and the political, social and cultural implications of this transatlantic relationship. Ms. Höhn.

Not offered in 2014/15.

342b. Stalinism (1)

This seminar explores the transformation of the USSR and its borderlands under Stalin, with special emphasis on the impact of terror, dislocations, and compressed economic change on specific national groups (Russians, Ukraine, Central Asia). Topics include Stalin's ideology and vision of the Soviet people, the impact of Stalinism on politics in Europe, collectivization and industrialization, the experiences of the "enemies of the people," resistance and dissent, and achievements and legacies. The course concludes with an examination of post-Soviet public memory and discussions of the Stalinist past. Ms. Pohl.

Not offered in 2014/15.

343b. Youth in Russia, 1880-Present (1)

This seminar explores the history of youth culture in Russia. We examine how youth and teenagers were "discovered" and defined as an age group through ethnographies, sociological accounts, and memoirs, and explore the youth experience as depicted in films and documentaries. Topics include experiences of youth during periods of reform, youth legislation, youth institutions, youth and Stalinism, and the experience of girls. The course concludes with an exploration of contemporary Russian teen culture, focusing on music and its role in the 1980s and 1990s. Ms. Pohl.

Not offered in 2014/15.

351a. Problems in U.S. Foreign Policy (1)

Using historical case studies, this seminar examines some of the major foreign affairs dilemmas U.S. policy makers have faced since 1945. Major topics include: containment; modernization; nation building; limited war; détente; human rights and humanitarian intervention; and democracy promotion. Mr. Brigham.

355a. Childhood and Children in Nineteenth-Century Britain (1)

(Same as WMST 355) This course examines both the social constructions of childhood and the experiences of children in Britain during the nineteenth century, a period of immense industrial and social change. We analyze the various understandings of childhood at the beginning of the century (including utilitarian, Romantic, and evangelical approaches to childhood) and explore how, by the end of the century, all social classes shared similar expectations of what it meant to be a child. Main topics include the relationships between children and parents, child labor, sexuality, education, health and welfare, abuse, delinquency, and children as imperial subjects. Ms. Murdoch.

Not offered in 2014/15.

357b. The First World War (1)

For many, the First World War marks the beginning of the modern age. After examining the debate about the conflict's causes, this seminar takes the social and cultural history of the war as its subject. Topics include the methods of mechanized trench warfare, the soldiers' experience, the effects of total war on the home front, and the memory of the Great War in film and literature. The primary focus is on European combatants, but we also explore the role of colonial troops and the impact of the war on European empires. Ms. Murdoch.

360b. Black Business and Social Movements in the Twentieth Century (1)

(Same as AFRS 360) From movies to music, bleaching cream to baseball, black entrepreneurs and consumers have historically negotiated the profits and pleasures of a "black economy" to achieve economic independence as a meaning of freedom. This seminar examines the duality of black businesses as economic and social institutions alongside black consumers' ideas of economic freedom to offer new perspectives on social and political movements in the twentieth-century. We explore black business activity and consumer activism as historical processes of community formation and economic resistance, paying particular attention to black capitalism, consumer boycotts, and the economy of black culture in the age of segregation. Topics include the development of the black beauty industry; black urban film culture; the Negro Baseball League; Motown and the protest music of the 1960s and 1970s; the underground economy; and federal legislation affecting black entrepreneurship. Mr. Mills.

Not offered in 2014/15.

One 2-hour period.

361b. Varieties of the Latin American Indian Experience (1)

This course treats the Indian world of Latin America as it responded to increased European penetration in the post-1500 period. Focusing primarily on Mesoamerica and the Andean region, it examines the variety of ways indigenous peoples dealt with cultural dislocation associated with the imposition of colonial systems and the introduction of the modern state. The course treats as well the Indian policies of the state, and how those policies reflected assumptions about the role of indigenous peoples in the larger society. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the process of negotiation of identity---what it meant to be Indian in an increasingly European society, and how the interpenetration of the two worlds, and the response of one to the other, reshaped each world. Ms. Offutt.

Prerequisite: 200-level Latin American history.

Not offered in 2014/15.

362b. The Cuban Revolutions (1)

Questions of sovereignty and issues of inequality have roiled the surface of the Cuban Republic since its founding in 1902; during the past century there were two major upheavals, the revolutions of 1933 and 1959. This course examines the context out of which those revolutions emerged and the manner in which post-revolutionary governments addressed (or failed to address) the concerns that prompted Cubans to choose the "revolutionary option." We pay particular attention to the relationship between Cuba and the United States, the legacies of slavery and racism, and the shaping of Cuban society after 1959. Ms. Offutt.

Prerequisite: HIST 264.

Not offered in 2014/15.

363a. Revolution and Conflict in Twentieth-Century Latin America (1)

(Same as LALS 363) Revolution has been a dominant theme in the history of Latin America since 1910. This course examines the revolutionary experiences of three nations---Mexico, Cuba, and Nicaragua. It examines theories of revolution, then assesses the revolutions themselves---the conditions out of which each revolution developed, the conflicting ideologies at play, the nature of the struggles, and the postrevolutionary societies that emerged from the struggles. Ms. Offutt.

Prerequisite: HIST 264 or permission of the instructor.

365a. Race and the History of Jim Crow Segregation (1)

(Same as AFRS 365) This seminar examines the rise of racial segregation sanctioned by law and racial custom from 1865 to 1965. Equally important, we explore the multiple ways African Americans negotiated and resisted segregation in the private and public spheres. This course aims toward an understanding of the work that race does, with or without laws, to order society based on the intersection of race, class and gender. Topics include: disfranchisement, labor and domesticity, urbanization, public space, education, housing, history and memory, and the lasting effects of sanctioned segregation. We focus on historical methods of studying larger questions of politics, resistance, privilege and oppression. We also explore interdisciplinary methods of studying race and segregation, such as critical race theory. Music and film supplement classroom discussions. Mr. Mills.

366a. American Encounters: Natives, Newcomers, and the Contest for a Continent (1)

Moving past today's fixation on Pocahontas and John Smith, Squanto and the Pilgrims, this course will examine the Native response to the invasion of North America, focusing on peoples living east of the Mississippi River before the early 19th century, the era of 'Removal' that marked the beginning of the end of Indian Country. Confronting the challenges in the way of understanding the Native experience (lack of evidence, modern stereotypes, loaded language), we will combine scholarly works with Native writings, explorers' accounts, treaty texts, captivity narratives, and films to consider the central arenas where Indians engaged foreigners from beyond the eastern horizon, from trade and missions through war and diplomacy to ideas of "race" and notions of gender. Mr. Merrell.

Not offered in 2014/15.

One 2-hour period.

367a. Peoples and Environments in the American West (1)

(Same as ENST 367) This course explores the history of the trans-Mississippi West in the nineteenth century and its legacies in modern America. Themes include cultural conflict and accommodation; federal power and Western politics; and humans' negotiations with their environments. The course considers the history of the frontier as a process; the Western U.S. as a geographic place; and the legendary West and its functions in American mythology. Ms. Edwards.

Not offered in 2014/15.

368a. American Portrait: The United States c. 1830 (1)

The election of Andrew Jackson and the "age of the common man"; the deaths of the last Founding Fathers and the beginning of the first railroad; Cherokee Indian Removal and Nat Turner's slave rebellion; Alexis de Tocqueville's famous visit and the first magazine edited by a woman; radical abolition and the invention of Davy Crockett---the confluence of these and other events around 1830 makes that historical moment an important American watershed. This course examines the currents and cross-currents of that era. Ranging widely across the country and visiting some of its many inhabitants, we explore the paradoxes of this pivotal era, trying to make sense of how people then, and historians since, tried to understand its character. Mr. Merrell.

Not offered in 2014/15.

369b. Social Citizenship in an Urban Age (1)

(Same as URBS 369) During a 1936 campaign speech President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared that in "1776 we sought freedom from the tyranny of a political autocracy." Since then "the age of machinery, of railroads; of steam and electricity; the telegraph and the radio; mass production and mass distribution---all of these combined to bring forward a new civilization and with it a new problem . . . . For too many of us the political equality we once had won was meaningless in the face of economic inequality." Therefore, the President concluded, government must do something to "protect the citizen's right to work and right to live." This course looks at how Americans during the twentieth century fought to expand the meaning of citizenship to include social rights. We study efforts on behalf of labor laws, unemployment and old age insurance, and aid to poor mothers and their children. How did these programs affect Americans of different social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds? How did gender shape the ways that people experienced these programs? Because many Americans believed that widening educational opportunities was essential for addressing the problems associated with the "new civilization" that Roosevelt described, we ask to what extent Americans came to believe that access to a good education is a right of citizenship. These issues and the struggles surrounding them are not only, as they say, "history." To help us understand our times, we look at the backlash, in the closing decades of the twentieth century, against campaigns to enlarge the definition of citizenship. Ms. Cohen.

373b. Slavery and Abolition in Africa (1)

(Same as AFRS 373) The Trans-Saharan and the Atlantic slave trade transformed African communities, social structures, and cultures. The seminar explores the development, abolition, and impact of slavery in Africa from the earliest times to the twentieth century. The major conceptual and historiographical themes include indigenous servitude, female enslavement, family strategies, slave resistance, abolition, and culture. The seminar uses specific case studies as well as a comparative framework to understand slavery in Africa. Mr. Rashid.

Prerequisite: standard department prerequisites or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2014/15.

One 2-hour period.

374a. The African Diaspora (1)

(Same as AFRS 374) This seminar investigates the social origins, philosophical and cultural ideas, and the political forms of Pan-Africanism from the late nineteenth century to the end of the twentieth century. It explores how disaffection and resistance against slavery, racism and colonial domination in the Americas, Caribbean, Europe, and Africa led to the development of a global movement for the emancipation of peoples of African descent from 1900 onwards. The seminar examines the different ideological, cultural, and organizational manifestations of Pan-Africanism as well as the scholarly debates on development of the movement. Readings include the ideas and works of Edward Blyden, Alexander Crummell, W. E. B. Dubois, Marcus Garvey, Amy Garvey, C.L.R. James, and Kwame Nkmmah. Mr. Rashid.

Prerequisite: permission of the instrcutor.

375a. Years of Disunion: The U.S. Civil War (1)

This course considers the Civil War as a political, military, social, and cultural watershed in American history. Topics covered include the secession crisis and the political transformation wrought by the Republican Party; events on the battlefield and on the Union and Confederate home fronts; the gradual unfolding of Emancipation as a Union war aim, and its results; human responses to the war's grim toll of death and destruction; and the conflict's long-term legacies. Readings include recent works of scholarship as well as eyewitness accounts and works of fiction. Ms. Edwards.

381a. Love and Death in Tokugawa Japan, 1603-1868 (1)

We reconstruct life in early modern Japan by engaging primary sources in translation, including memoirs, autobiographies, thanatologues, satire, novels, plays, and treatises. Various social group---the samurai (the warrior elite), commoners, intellectuals, and women---are examined. We look at Japan's past as "lived experience" by focusing on everyday social practices and personal lives. This seminar does not presuppose familiarity with Japanese history but requires a keen and active historical mind.

Not offered in 2014/15.

382a. Marie-Antoinette (1)

(Same as WMST 382) More than 200 years after her death, Marie-Antoinette continues to be an object of fascination because of her supposed excesses and her death at the guillotine. For her contemporaries, Marie-Antoinette often symbolized all that was wrong in French body politic. Through the life of Marie-Antoinette, we investigate the changing political and cultural landscape of eighteenth-century France including the French Revolution. Topics include women and power, political scandal and public opinion, fashion and self-representation, motherhood and domesticity, and revolution and gender iconography. Throughout the course, we explore the changing nature of the biographical narrative. The course also considers the legacy of Marie Antoinette as martyr and fetish object in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and her continuing relevance today. Ms. Choudhury.

Not offered in 2014/15.

385a. Colonialism, Resistance, and Knowledge in Modern Middle Eastern History (1)

This course examines the historiography of the modern Middle East. We begin with a number of older, foundational texts in an effort to understand and contextualize Orientalism as it emerged in the nineteenth-century, as well as its intellectual legacy in the United States. The course then turns to the substance and impact of post-colonialist interventions since the 1960s that have thrown many "givens" of the discipline into doubt. The bulk of the course focuses on recent scholarship, allowing us to explore how (or whether) historians of Islam and the Middle East have benefited from the new scholarly perspectives that emerged in the wake of anti-colonialist struggles. The meaning of "modernity" serves as a principal organizing question of the class. Mr. Schreier.

Prerequisite: HIST 174 or HIST 214 or HIST 255; or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2014/15.

386b. Central Asia and the Caucasus: Nation Building and Human Rights (1)

(Same as INTL 386) The Muslim regions between Russia and China are becoming more populated, prosperous, and connected. The Caspian Sea region is booming with new oil and gas wealth. A wave of democracy movements swept newly independent states but oligarchs and long-term autocratic presidents dominate politics and business. An Islamic revival after the fall of communism has brought a crisis of political Islam, including problems like terrorism, re-veiling campaigns, and bride-kidnappings. Chechnya and the North Caucasus became magnets for violence, while Tatarstan has seen a quiet renaissance of liberal Russian Islam. This cross-listed seminar explores nation building, human rights, and spiritual life in Central Asia and the Caucasus from a historical perspective. Topics include the legacies of Mongol and Tatar power verticals, the impact of communism on Central Asia, the war in Chechnya and its effect on human rights in the region, the history of Kazakhstan's new capital, Astana, and daily life and politics since independence in 1991. Ms. Pohl.

One 2-hour period.

388b. Studies in US/Asian Relations (1)

Not offered in 2013/14.

389b. Constructing China from Beyond (1)

(Same as ASIA 389) This course examines China from the perspective of its engagement with the non-Chinese world, in both the pre-modern and modern period. Roughly in chronological order, the course will cover China's interactions with others in three geographical scales: the frontier regimes in Inner Asia, the land and maritime neighbors in East and Southeast Asia, and regional/global powers in a broader scope. The main questions of inquiry include (but are not limited to): how does one draw a boundary around the subject called "China" in terms of geography, ethnicity, nation, culture, and civilization? To what extent has China's views of the external world shifted in the modern period? Was/is there a general Chinese mode in dealing with outsiders? Though mainly a study of history, the course also introduces works from other disciplines like sociology and international relations. Many important issues in contemporary China studies, such as domestic challenges in ethnic frontier areas and diplomatic disputes with other countries, are no doubt embedded in our concerns from the very beginning. Mr. Song.

One 2-hour period.

399a or b. Senior Independent Work (1/2to1)

Permission required.