Greek and Roman Studies Department

Students who study in the Greek and Roman Studies department explore aspects of the ancient Mediterranean world with an emphasis on the cultures of Greece and Rome. At the heart of this exploration are the languages of the Greeks and the Romans, their literature, their history, their art, their philosophy, their religion, their politics, their relations with the other peoples of the Mediterranean, and their reception and interpretation by later cultures.

The story of “Classical” scholarship goes back to the Library of Alexandria in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. The project that the scholars of the library undertook was to collect, copy and edit as many texts of Greek literature as they could find. The study of the Greeks and Romans still has at its core this act of preservation. But, like the Alexandrian scholars and perhaps more self-consciously, we acknowledge that we are also involved in an act of reinterpretation. Our goal is both to preserve the knowledge of ancient cultures but also to interpret that knowledge in the context of contemporary culture.

We bring to this project many different skills and many different methods. Again, at the heart of the enterprise is the philological skills that the Alexandrian scholars developed: the ability to look back at a “dead” language and imagine it in its living form, in order to be able to read the written remains as richly as possible. An ancient historian adds to this skill the ability to gather disparate kinds of fragmentary evidence, both literary and material, to reconstruct both the major national and international events that shaped these cultures and the texture of the lives of their peoples from day to day. In this they rely heavily on archaeologists who uncover the physical traces of the past and attempt to establish a chronology and a function for these remains. Literary scholars find in works of literature not only evidence for the aesthetic principles that govern the creation of literary works of art but also apply modern theoretical approaches that allow us to see literature as a reflection of social, political and religious assumptions.

But in the end every student of Greek and Roman Studies is using insights about the ancient world to enrich his or her understanding of our modern world. In the end what classicists develop is an intense self-consciousness about the nature of their own assumptions, fashioned by the world in which they live - assumptions which the study of antiquity allows us to question and assumptions which we must question in order to be able to focus our attention on the strange “otherness” of different cultures that have much to teach us.

Recommendations: All students are strongly advised to study either Greek or Latin language at the 300-level.

Recommendations for graduate study: Students considering graduate work in Greek and Roman Studies should at a minimum have at least 2 units of 300 level work in one ancient language and 1 unit of 300 level work in the other. Proficiency in at least one relevant modern foreign language (e.g. French, Italian, German) is also recommended.

Departmental honors: In addition to the senior project students must elect 300-level work in the department both semesters of their senior year to be considered for honors.

Advisers: The department.

Programs

Major

Correlate Sequence in Greek and Roman Studies

Courses

Greek and Roman Studies: I. Introductory

Courses in English Translation
Courses in English translation, numbered X00-X19 are taught entirely in English. No knowledge of Greek or Latin is required.

100a. Then and Now: Reinterpreting Greece and Rome (1)

Here we are at the beginning of the 21st century, yet all around us we continue to see allusions to and creative engagements with Greek and Roman antiquity. From the bestseller list which features a novel claiming to reveal recently discovered books of the Odyssey to an HBO series that takes place in ancient Rome and comparisons of the post 9/11 United States to the Roman Empire in the news, the worlds of ancient Greece and Rome continue to be viscerally alive and compelling as sources for artistic and cultural production. Why is this so? In this course we examine the ways that the legacies of classical antiquity continue to be felt today and invite us to explore the cultures of Greece and Rome. The course serves as an interdisciplinary introduction to the study of Greek and Roman languages, literature, history, and archaeology and the interpretation of these cultures by subsequent civilizations. The course addresses both the complex political, social, intellectual, and cultural settings of the ancient world and the ways in which the study of antiquity can challenge and enrich our experience of the present. To pursue these questions we read ancient texts, examine material artifacts, study linguistic evidence, and engage with creative contemporary responses to antiquity and recent theoretical work on the study of the ancient world. In serving as an overview of the kinds of questions that contemporary culture inspires us to ask of and about antiquity and the materials and approaches that scholars use for their inquiries, the course prepares the student for further work in the department. Mr. Dozier.

Two 75-minute periods.

101a. Civilization in Question (1)

(Same as CLCS 101) This course undertakes to question civilization in various ways. First, by looking at texts from ancient, medieval, and renaissance cultures, as well as texts and films from our own; it introduces students to major works of the Western tradition and asks how they bring under scrutiny their own tradition. In particular we examine how the individual, community, justice and the divine are imagined in these texts. Second, because the course is team-taught by faculty from different disciplines, we explore the ways a text is interpreted and how different meanings are found in it because of the different perspectives brought to the class by its faculty. Finally, we reflect on the role questioning plays in the process of a liberal arts education and the different kinds of attitudes and intellectual outlooks we learn to bring tot he study of any text, which impels us to consider the ways we allow the past to inform and question the present and the present to inform and question our understanding of the past. Readings for the course vary from year to year, but have included Genesis, Exodus, and texts by Homer, Plato, Nietzsche, Foucault, and Walcott. Ms. Friedman (Greek and Roman Studies) and Mr. Schreier (History).

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods and one 50-minute discussion period.

102a. Cleopatra (1)

A famous historian once wrote "The true history of Antony and Cleopatra will probably never be known; it is buried too deep beneath the version of the victors." This course examines the life and times of Egypt's most famous queen, who was both a Hellenistic monarch, last of a dynasty founded by a companion of Alexander the Great, and a goddess incarnate, Pharaoh of one of the world's oldest societies. However, the ways in which Cleopatra has been depicted over the centuries since her death are equally intriguing, and the course considers versions of Cleopatra from the Romans, who saw her as a foreign queen who tried to steal their empire, to Shakespeare, Shaw, film and television to explore how different societies have created their own image of this bewitching figure. Mr. Lott.

Open only to freshmen; satisfies college requirement for a Freshman Writing Seminar.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

104a. Greek Archaeology (1)

This course examines sites and monuments of the ancient Greek world from the Bronze Age to the Classical period. We introduce archaeological methods, examine the history and developement of Greek archaeology from the origins of the field in the 1870's to the present, and trace the chronological development of Greek art and architecture across several major sites including Knossos, Mycenae, Olympia, Delphi, and Athens. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding and interpreting monuments in terms of their political, social, and economic contexts. Ms. Olsen.

Alternate years.

Two 75-minute periods.

105a. Lives of the First Roman Emperors (1/2)

The course examines the reigns of the first, "Julio-Claudian" emperors of Rome (31 BCE-68 CE) through a reading of Suetonius's The Lives of the Twelve Caesars. Beginning with Julius Caesar, whose dictatorship hastened the end of the Republic, and Augustus, the shrewd architect of the Principate, through Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius to the tyrant Nero, whose suicide brought the Julio-Claudian dynasty to its close, the biographies of Suetonius present a colorful array of imperial virtues and vices. In addition to providing an introduction to the early Roman Empire, the course considers the purpose of Suetonius's Lives: historical documentation, entertainment, or serious reflection on the nature of monarchic rule? Mr. Brown.

All readings are in English translation.

First 6-week course.

Two 75-minute periods.

106b. The Confessions of St. Augustine (1/2)

(Same as MRST 106 and RELI 106) Augustine of Hippo (354-430 CE) was born and raised in Roman Africa, converted to Christianity at the age of 32, entered the priesthood, and composed works of theology that greatly influenced the development of Western Christianity. The Confessions, his most famous work and an enduring masterpiece of late Latin literature, is an autobiographical account of a young man's search for happiness and truth, from the sins and errors (as he later viewed them) of his youth---his sexual affairs, friendships, and intellectual enthusiasms---to the mystical experience of his conversion. Augustine captures his journey from confusion to enlightenment in an emotional and innovative style, blending personal recollection, intense soul-searching, biblical quotation, prayer, and philosophical reflection on the meaning of memory and time. The course sets the Confessions in the cultural context of late imperial Rome and examines its unique ideas and literary qualities. Mr. Brown.

6-week course. All readings are in English translation.

Two 75-minute periods.

183b. The Invention of Science (1)

(Same as STS 183   ) This class focuses on ancient Greco-Roman speculation about, description of, investigation into, and modification of the natural world. Units are devoted to observers of nature, such as Aristotle and the Presocratics, mathematicians such as Archimedes and Euclid, practitioners of medicine such as Hippocrates and Galen, and theorists of technological innovation, including writers on architecture, agriculture, and weaponry. In reading and writing about these texts students become particularly attuned to the metaphors, narratives, and rhetorical devices that such theorists use to authorize their work, and explore the function of similar authorizing moves in modern scientific writing, while becoming more attuned to the often occluded cultural narratives and metaphors that underlie our own scientific age. The final paper for the class involves an analysis of a modern scientific text in this light. Mr. Dozier.

All readings are provided in English translation. Open only to freshmen; satisfies the college requirement for a Freshman Writing Seminar.

Two 75-minute periods.

Greek and Roman Studies: II. Intermediate

Independent Work
Independent work may be pursued in Greek, Latin, or English translation.

201b. Ancient Warfare (1)

This course examines the phenomenon of war in Greek and Roman antiquity. While not neglecting traditional military topics such as arms and armor, organization, tactics, and strategy, we seek a wider cultural understanding of war by exploring its social ideology, the role of women and other non-combatants, and its depiction in art and literature. Wars for discussion include the fictional Trojan War as well as historical wars such as the Persian Wars, the Peloponnesian War, the Punic Wars, and the Roman Civil War. Readings in English translation are selected from Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides, Caesar, and others. Mr. Brown

Prerequisite: any 100-level course in Classics, Greek, or Latin, or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

202b. Myth (1)

This course examines ancient myth from a variety of theoretical perspectives. It compares Greek and Roman myth with other mythic traditions and explores different versions of the same myth within Greek and Roman culture. We also consider transformations of ancient myths into modem versions. Literary, artistic, and archaeological evidence provide ways to understand the function of myth in ancient Greek and Roman society. Mr. Dozier and Ms. Friedman.

Two 75-minute periods.

203a. Women in Greek and Roman History and Myth (1)

(Same as WMST 203) Greek and Roman literary and historical accounts abound with vividly drawn women such as Helen, Antigone, Medea, Livia, and Agrippina, the mother of Nero. But how representative were such figures of the daily lives of women throughout Greek and Roman antiquity? This course investigates the images and realities of women in the ancient Greek and Roman world, from the Greek Late Bronze Age (c. 1200 BCE) to the Roman Empire (up to the III c. CE) by juxtaposing evidence from literature, historical sources, and archaeological material. Throughout, the course examines the complex ways in which ancient women interacted with the institutions of the state, the family, religion, and the arts. Ms. Olsen.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

204a. Gender and Sexuality in Roman Culture (1)

(Same as WMST 204) This course examines in detail the sexual attitudes and behaviors of the ancient Romans and the gender roles that both shaped and were shaped by those attitudes. We study selections from ancient Greek and Roman literature, examine artistic remains, and read articles written by prominent scholars of ancient Rome. While the readings are in roughly chronological order, the course is principally organized by topic (e.g., a day for "Roman pederasty" or "Vestal virgins"). All readings are in English translation. Mr. Corbeill.

Two 75-minute periods.

209b. From Homer to Omeros (1)

(Same as AFRS 209) No poet since James Joyce has been as deeply and creatively engaged in a refashioning of Homer as Derek Walcott, the Caribbean poet and 1992 Nobel Laureate. He has authored both a stage version of the Odyssey and a modern epic, Omeros, and in both of them he brings a decidedly postcolonial and decidedly Caribbean idiom to Homer's ancient tales. In this course we devote ourselves to a close reading of these works alongside the appropriate sections of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. Our aim is both to understand the complexities of Walcott's use of the Homeric models and to discover the new meanings that emerge in Homer when we read him through Walcott's eyes. Ms. Friedman.

Prerequisite: any 100-level Greek and Roman Studies course or one unit of related work or special permission.

Two 75-minute periods.

210a. Art, Myth, and Society in the Ancient Aegean (1)

(Same as ART 210) Greek Sacred Spaces: Sanctuaries and Ritual. Sanctuaries, filled with ornate buildings and famous works of art, were at the center of religious life in ancient Greece. This course examines these rich sacred spaces through the lens of the ritual activities which took place within their confines. Because cult activity was so varied in the Greek world, the course ranges from processions on the Athenian acropolis to oracles in the Temple of Apollo at Didyma, from athletic games at Olympia to healing rituals at Epidauros. The course focuses on the many ways the sanctuaries' topography, architecture and art reflect the evolving rituals and religion of the ancient Greeks. Ms. Fisher.

Prerequisite: ART 105-ART 106 or coursework in Greek & Roman Studies, or permission of the instructor.

NRO available to non-majors.

Two 75-minute periods.

211a. Roman Art and Architecture (1)

(Same as ART 211) Sculpture, painting, and architecture in the Roman Republic and Empire. Topics include: the appeal of Greek styles, the spread of artistic and architectural forms throughout the vast empire and its provinces, the role of art as political propaganda for state and as status symbols for private patrons. Ms. D'Ambra.

Prerequisite: ART 105-ART 106 or GRST 216 or GRST 217, or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

215a. The Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt (1)

(Same as ART 215) Ancient Egypt has long fascinated the public with its pyramids, mummies, and golden divine rulers. This course provides a survey of the archaeology, art, and architecture of ancient Egypt from the prehistoric cultures of the Nile Valley through the period of Cleopatra's rule and Roman domination. Topics to be studied include the art of the funerary cult and the afterlife, technology and social organization, and court rituals of the pharaohs, along with aspects of everyday life. Ms. D'Ambra.

Prerequisites:  ART 105-ART 106 or GRST 216 or GRST 217, or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

216b. History of the Ancient Greeks (1)

(Same as HIST 216) This course examines the history and culture of the ancient Greeks from the emergence of the city-state in the eighth century BCE to the conquests of Alexander the Great in 335 BCE. In addition to an outline of the political and social history of the Greeks, the course examines several historical, cultural, and methodological topics in depth, including the emergence of writing, Greek colonialism and imperialism, ancient democracy, polytheism, the social structures of Athenian society, and the relationship between Greeks and other Mediterranean cultures. Students both read primary sources (for example, Sappho, Tyrtaios, Herodotus, Thucydides, Aristophanes, and Plato) and examine sites and artifacts recovered through archaeology; the development of students' critical abilities to evaluate and use these sources for the study of history is a primary goal of the class. Mr. Lott.

217b. History of the Ancient Romans (1)

(Same as HIST 217) This course examines the history of the ancient Romans from the foundation of their city around the eighth century BCE to the collapse of their Mediterranean Empire in the fifth century CE. The course offers a broad historical outline of Roman history, but focuses on significant topics and moments in Roman history, including the Republican aristocracy, the civil and slave wars of the Late Republic, the foundation of the Empire by Caesar Augustus, urbanism, the place of public entertainments (gladiatorial combats, Roman hunts, chariot races, and theater) in society, the rise of Christianity, the processes of Romanization, and barbarization, and the political decline and fall of the Roman Empire. Students read primary sources such as Plautus, Cicero, Livy, Tacitus, and Suetonius, and secondary accounts dealing with important issues such as slavery, religious persecution and multiculturalism. Students also examine important archaeological sites and artifacts. The development of students' critical abilities to evaluate and use these sources for the study of history is a primary goal of the class. Mr. Lott.

Alternate years.Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

290b. Field Work (1/2to1)

Special Permission.

298a or b. Independent Study (1/2to1)

Special Permission.

Greek and Roman Studies: III. Advanced

301a. Seminar in Classical Civilization: Athenian Drama on the African Stage (1)

(Same as AFRS 301 and DRAM 301) Topic for 2014/15a: Athenian Drama on the African Stage. Since the independence of many African countries in the early 1960s, an increasing number of playwrights have drawn on Greek tragedy as a model for their productions. In this class we both read a selection of these works alongside their Greek intertexts and consider several larger issues at play in these adaptations. Among the questions we consider are the affinity between Greek and African theatrical forms related to their origins in ritual and the question of the particular role of the classical in a postcolonial world. Readings include such works as Soyinka's Bacchae, Rotimi's The Gods are Not to Blame, Osofisan's Tegonni and Fugard's The Island. Ms. Friedman.

Prerequisites: previous coursework in Greek and Roman Studies or another related discipline and sophomore status.

All readings are in English.

Two 75-minute periods.

302b. The Blegen Seminar (1)

The course is offered by the Blegen Distinguished Visiting Research Professor or the Blegen Research Fellow in Classics, appointed annually to pursue research and lecture on his/her scholarly concerns in classical antiquity. We encourage students to take note of the fact that each Blegen Seminar is uniquely offered and will not be repeated. Since the topic changes every year, the course may be taken for credit more than once.

Topic for 2014/15b: The Power of the Poet. The origins of the universe, the nature of life after death, the loves of the gods--on what basis do ancient poets claim the authority to know about such mysteries? This course examines this question with a primary focus on key poetic texts from ancient Greece and Rome, including such authors as Homer, Hesiod, Lucretius and Vergil. In addition to assessing the claims that such ancient poets make regarding, for example, inspiration from the Muses and the power of human reason, we also examine how readers and scholars from antiquity come to endow certain poets with more-than-human powers, such as Vergil's alleged prophecy of the birth of Christ. The class concludes with later poets influenced by the Greek and Roman tradition, particularly Dante, Wordsworth, and T.S. Eliot, as we continuously ask "what constitutes poetic authority?" All readings are in English. Mr. Corbeill.

Open to all classes.

Two 75-minute periods.

310b. Seminar in Ancient Art (1)

(Same as ART 310)

Not offered in 2014/15.

360a or b Senior Thesis (1)

One semester senior thesis. Seniors only

361a. Senior Thesis (1/2)

Full Year Thesis (1/2 unit per semester). Seniors Only.

362b. Senior Thesis (1/2)

Full Year Thesis (1/2 unit per semester). Seniors Only.

363a or b Senior Project (1/2)

Extended writing or other project elected concurrently with a seminar in Greek and Roman Studies. Seniors only.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor of the concurrent seminar.

399a or b Senior Independent Study (1/2to1)

Courses in Greek Language and Literature: I. Introductory

Courses in Greek Language and Literature
Courses numbered X20-X39 require appropriate reading ability in ancient Greek.

125a. Elementary Greek (1)

Introduction to the language. Ms. Olsen.

Open to all classes. No previous Greek is required.

Yearlong course 125-GRST 126.

Four 50-minute periods.

126b. Elementary Greek (1)

Introduction to the language. Ms. Olsen.

Open to all classes.

Yearlong course GRST 125-126.

Four 50-minute periods.

Courses in Greek Language and Literature: II. Intermediate

Independent Work
Independent work may be pursued in Greek, Latin, or English translation.

225a. Intermediate Greek (1)

Authors may include Sophokles, Euripides, Xenophon, Lysias, and Plato. In addition to consolidating knowledge of grammar, the selection of passages brings into focus important aspects of Athenian culture. Ms. Friedman.

Prerequisite: GRST 105-GRST 106 or permission of the instructor.

Three 50-minute periods.

226b. Topics in Greek Literature (1)

Topic for 2014/15b: Sirens, Sibyls and Sorceresses. (Same as GRST 321) In this class we look at a subgroup of the mythological Greek female: women who are endowed with supernatural powers. We consider their differences and similarities from each other with particular focus on the question of their access to the divine. We begin with Homer and Hesiod, looking closely at figures like Circe, Kalypso and even Helen, and then move on to a consideration of women like Medea and Deianeira as they are depicted in 5th century tragedy. We also attempt to read these fictionalized figures against the information that we have about their real-life counterparts like the Pythia at Delphi. Ms. Friedman.

Prerequisite: GRST 225 or permission of the instructor.

This course should be elected by students before electing any advanced Greek course in the department. Students enrolled in 226 will have an extra hour of grammar review and students enrolled in GRST 321 will have longer Greek assignments.

Two 75-minute periods and one 50-minute drill period.

Courses in Greek Language and Literature: III. Advanced

321b. Topics in Greek Literature (1)

Topic for 2014/15b: Sirens, Sibyls and Sorceresses. (Same as GRST 226) In this class we look at a subgroup of the mythological Greek female: women who are endowed with supernatural powers. We consider their differences and similarities from each other with particular focus on the question of their access to the divine. We begin with Homer and Hesiod, looking closely at figures like Circe, Kalypso and even Helen, and then move on to a consideration of women like Medea and Deianeira as they are depicted in 5th century tragedy. We also attempt to read these fictionalized figures against the information that we have about their real-life counterparts like the Pythia at Delphi. Ms. Friedman.

Prerequisite: GRST 225 or permission of the instructor.

This course should be elected by students before electing any advanced Greek course in the department. Students enrolled in GRST 226 will have an extra hour of grammar review and students enrolled in 321 will have longer Greek assignments.

Two 75-minute periods and one 50-minute drill period.

322a. Greek Tragedy (1)

A reading of a play by Sophokles or Euripides. Careful study of the text helps us to understand the playwright's style. We also consider how the play examines and responds to the historical, social and political conditions of Athens in the fifth century BCE. Ms. Olsen.

Prerequisite: two units in 200-level courses in the language or permission of the instructor.

Offered in alternate years.

Two 75-minute periods.

323a. Homer (1)

Extensive selections from the Iliadthe Odyssey, and/or Homeric Hymns with attention given to oral theory, thematic structure, and social issues raised by the poems. Ms. Olsen.

Prerequisite: two units in 200-level courses in the language or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.

Courses in Latin Language and Literature: I. Introductory

Courses in Latin Language and Literature
Courses numbered X40-X59 require appropriate reading ability in Latin.

145a. Elementary Latin (1)

Introduction to the language. Mr. Brown.

Open to all classes. No previous Latin is required.

Yearlong course 145-GRST 146.

Four 50-minute periods.

146b. Elementary Latin (1)

Introduction to the language. Mr. Brown.

Open to all classes.

Yearlong course GRST 145-146.

Four 50-minute periods.

Courses in Latin Language and Literature: II. Intermediate

245a. Intermediate Latin (1)

Selected readings from authors such as Plautus, Cicero, Catullus, Caesar, Sallust, and Virgil. The selection of readings is designed to consolidate knowledge of grammar, provide an introduction to the translation of continuous, unadapted Latin, and highlight interesting features of Roman culture in the last two centuries of the Republic. Mr. Brown.

Prerequisite: GRST 145-GRST 146 or permission of the instructor or chair.

Three 50-minute periods.

246b. Intermediate Latin (1)

Authors may include Horace, Livy, Ovid, Seneca, Petronius, Suetonius, and Virgil. Readings are selected to illustrate the diversity of literary forms that flourished in the early Empire and the interaction of literature with society, politics, and private life. Mr. Lott.

Prerequisite: GRST 245 or permission of the instructor.

Three 50-minute periods.

Courses in Latin Language and Literature: III. Advanced

341b. Topics in Latin Literature (1)

Topic for 2014/15b: The World of Plautus: Plautus, the first master of Roman comedy, adapted his Greek models to enhance the role of music, increase the element of farce, and highlight tensions that reflected his own society's concerns regarding love and marriage, slavery, greed, ambition, and other matters. His exuberant expression of basic human emotions, his cast of colorful characters, and his humorous exploitation of misunderstanding, trickery, and disguise have influenced the development of western comedy from Shakespeare to the TV sitcom. In this course we read a complete play of Plautus in Latin and other plays in English translation. Mr. Brown.

Prerequisites: two 200-level courses or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

342b. Virgil (1)

Selections from the EcloguesGeorgics, or Aeneid. Subjects of study include the artistry of the Virgilian hexameter, the relationship of Virgil's works to their Greek models, and general topics such as his conception of destiny, religion, and the human relation to nature. Mr. Brown

Prerequisite: GRST 246 or permission of the instructor.

Offered every third year.Not offered in 2014/15.

343a. Tacitus (1)

Close readings from the works of the imperial historian and ethnographer Tacitus. In connection with further developing students' reading skills, the class focuses on particular literary, cultural, or historical issues. Mr. Lott.

Prerequisite: GRST 246 or permission of the instructor.

Offered every third year.

344a. Roman Lyric and Elegy (1)

Poems of Horace, Tibullus, Propertius, Catullus and Ovid with attention given to poetic form, the influence of poets on each other, and the view they give us of Roman society in the first century BCE. Mr. Brown.

Prerequisite: GRST 246 or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2014/15.

Two 75-minute periods.