Philosophy Department

Philosophy as a discipline reflects both speculatively and critically on the world, our actions, and our claims to knowledge. The Department of Philosophy offers a variety of courses of study that not only introduce students to the great philosophical achievements of the past and present but also aim to teach them how to think, write, and speak philosophically themselves.

Requirements for Concentration: The Philosophy major requires a total of 12 units.

100-level: Majors must take two 100 level courses, one of which must be Philosophy 101 (History of Western Philosophy: Ancient) or Philosophy 102 (History of Western Philosophy: Modern)

200-level: Majors must take Philosophy 230 (Logic) and also one course from each of the following:

Cluster 1: Philosophy 220 (Metaphysics), 222 (Philosophy of Language), 224 (Philosophy of Mind), 226 (Philosophy of Science) and 228 (Epistemology).

Cluster 2: Philosophy 205 (Nineteenth Century Philosophy), 215 (Phenomenology and Existential Thought), 240 (Philosophy of Art and Aesthetics), 242 (Philosophy of Music) and 260 (Philosophy and the Arts).

Cluster 3: Philosophy 210 (Neo-Confucianism and Chinese Buddhism), 234 (Ethics), 238 (Social and Political Philosophy), 250 (Feminist Theory) and 270 (Queer Theory).

300-level: Three 300-level seminars, two of which must be differently numbered. The department will not entertain any requests to count a seminar under a number different from the one it is assigned in the curriculum.

300-301 (Senior Thesis) is optional. Majors will consult with their faculty advisor about opting to write a senior thesis. Students who choose not to do a senior thesis will take an upper-level course instead.

NRO Policy: After the declaration of major, no required philosophy courses may be elected NRO.

Advisors: The Faculty

Recommendations: Individual programs should be designed, in consultation with a faculty advisor, to give the student a representative acquaintance with major traditions in philosophy, competence in the skills of philosophic investigation and argument, and opportunities for exploration in areas of special interest. Students considering a concentration in philosophy are advised to take Philosophy 101 or 102 early in their careers. German, French, and Greek are languages of particular importance in Western philosophy; Chinese will be of special interest to those taking Philosophy 110, 210, or 350.

Correlate Sequences in Philosophy: The philosophy department offers six different correlate sequences. In each sequence a total of 6 units is required. The required 300-level seminar may be taken twice if the topics differ; students may also petition to count an appropriate Philosophy 280 as equivalent to a 300-level seminar.

Correlate Sequence in Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art: Philosophy 101 or 102; two from Philosophy 240, 242, 260; one of 205, 215, or an appropriate 280; two appropriate 300-level seminars. Advisers: Ms. Borradori, Mr. Murray and Ms. Church

Correlate Sequence in Comparative Philosophy: Philosophy 110 and one of 101 or 102; Philosophy 210 and 234; two appropriate 300-level seminars, including Philosophy 350. Adviser: Mr. Van Norden

Correlate Sequence in Ethics and Social and Political Philosophy: 1 unit at the introductory level, selected from Philosophy 101, 105, 106 or 110; 3 units at the intermediate level, selected from 234, 238, 250 or 270; two appropriate 300-level seminars, including Philosophy 330. Advisers: Ms. Narayan, Mr. Seidman and Mr. Kelly

Correlate Sequence in Continental Philosophy: Philosophy 101 or 102; 205, 215, and one of Philosophy 240 or 260; two appropriate 300-level seminars, including Philosophy 340. Advisers: Ms. Borradori and Mr. Murray

Correlate Sequence in the History of Western Philosophy: Philosophy 101 and 102; Philosophy 205 and 215; two appropriate 300-level seminars, including Philosophy 320. Adviser: Mr. Miller

Correlate Sequence in Analytic Philosophy: Philosophy 230 and either 102 or 105; 2 units from Philosophy 220, 222, 224, 226, 228; two appropriate 300-level seminars, including Philosophy 310. Advisers: Ms. Church, Mr. Lam and Mr. Winblad

Correlate sequences may be designed for other subfields in philosophy; for example, philosophy and gender, philosophy of science, and classical philosophy.  However, students must obtain approval from the department for any correlate or alternative correlate sequence prior to the beginning of their senior year.

I. Introductory

101a. History of Western Philosophy: Ancient (1)

101-01/02a: This course provides an introduction to the first three centuries of Western philosophy, a period of extraordinary insight and creativity. We will begin by exploring the fragmentary writings of some of the earliest Greek philosophers, and attempt to reconstruct their accounts of the nature of the cosmos and of our place within it. We will then study several of Plato’s most influential dialogues, focusing on the trial and death of Socrates, and the radical claim that the human good consists in knowledge or wisdom. The Republic will give us the tools we need to make better sense of Plato’s thesis, while raising complex questions of its own. Towards the end of the semester we will consider how his student, Aristotle, responds to some of these issues in his investigations of knowledge and substance, form and matter, and the best life for creatures like us. Throughout the course we will ask how the literary form in which ancient philosophical texts were written (e.g., poetic verse, aphoristic statement, dialogue, and treatise) should affect our understanding of their content. Mr. Raymond.

Two 75-minute periods.

102b. History of Western Philosophy: Modern (1)

102-51b & 52b: Descartes inaugurated modern philosophy by turning philosophical attention away from questions about what the world is like and directing it onto the question: how is it possible for us to know what the world is like? He made this question urgent by offering arguments that suggest that we cannot know what the world is like – arguments suggesting that there is an unbridgeable “gap” between the mind and the material world. We will carefully examine the ways in which Descartes himself, Hume, and, finally, Kant, seek to answer these arguments and bridge the “gap” that Descartes’ arguments open up. We will see how their various approaches to this task shape and are shaped by their conceptions of the human mind, the material world, the relation of the mind to the human body, and the nature of the ‘self.’ Mr. Seidman.

105a and b. Philosophical Questions (1)

105-01a: The attitudes that we adopt towards other people, towards our surroundings, and towards ourselves reveal much about the sort of people we are and the sort of world we inhabit. This course explores the philosophical significance of some particularly important yet problematic attitudes: trust and suspicion, resentment and sympathy, anger and forgiveness, pride and guilt, anxiety and irritation, sentimentality and irony. When are each of these attitudes justified, and when not? Why are certain people (or certain parts of our lives) dominated by one attitude rather than another? Which attitudes are most important for knowledge, for morality, for politics, and for art? Ms. Church.

105-02a: What is philosophy? This course will introduce you to philosophy as the assimilation of human experiences–perceptual, imaginative, moral, and emotional–with the power and limitations of human reason. We will look at how philosophers apply reason and argumentation to perceptual experiences in their search for knowledge and rationality. We will investigate the issues of personal identity, and the existence of unperceivable things, to see how philosophers use reason to make sense of our imaginative experiences. Finally, we will look at the application of reason to moral and emotional experiences in the search for the right account of moral good, freedom, and moral responsibility. The topics in this course will be quite abstract, and students will need to participate actively in class discussion to do well. Students will leave the course with an appreciation for the breadth and scope of philosophical thinking. Mr. Lam.

105b: An exploration of some central philosophical concerns, such as the role of feelings versus reason in determining values, the nature of knowledge and the limits of knowledge, the relation between mind and body, appropriate attitudes towards death and suffering, and the possibility of objectivity. TBA.

106a and b. Philosophy and Contemporary Issues (1)

106a: The course is aimed at exposing students to a number of social, ethical, and political questions that define our age. Topics studied will include child soldiers, terrorism, global migrants, the environment, and ecological injustice. Emphasis throughout will be placed upon argumentative rigor and the development of critical skills, in both oral and written communication. Ms. Borradori.

106-51/52b: The course covers a number of contemporary issues on which there is significant philosophical disagreement and moral debate. We will examine a range of positions on topics such as abortion, euthanasia, animal rights, affirmative action, and issues of sexual morality, free speech and distributive justice. This course aims to promote the understanding of the philosophical arguments for a variety of positions on contemporary moral issues and to illuminate the different moral concepts and types of argument at work in these readings. We will also think about the legal and public implications of various positions on these issues. Ms. Narayan.

106-53b: This course introduces students to the philosophical study of moral issues, focusing upon topics such as war, terrorism, our food choices, abortion, and euthanasia. Emphasis throughout will be placed upon argumentative rigor, clarity, and precision. Mr. Kelly.

110a. Early Chinese Philosophy (1)

An introduction to Chinese philosophy in the period between (roughly) 500 and 221 B.C., covering Confucians, Taoists and others. Among the topics discussed by these philosophers are human nature, methods of ethical education and self-cultivation, virtues and vices, and the role of conventions and institutions in human life. Mr. Van Norden.

Open only to freshmen; satisfies college requirement for a Freshman Writing Seminar.

Two 75-minute periods.

150b. The Limits of the Universe and the Limits of Understanding (1)

(Same as Physics 150) This course allows students to combine their interests in physics and in philosophy, recognizing common concerns and actively engaging in joint difficulties. The guiding questions of this course can be formulated as follows: In what ways, and to what extent, do recent developments in physics (e.g. the notion of space that is both infinite and bounded because curved) either solve or bypass traditional philosophical paradoxes concerning space and time, causality, and objectivity? In what ways, and to what extent, do traditional philosophical worries (e.g. worries about incoherence, worries about theories that cannot be falsified, or worries about concepts whose application cannot be imagined) cast doubt on the accuracy or the methodology of current physics? Readings are from physics and philosophy. Ms. Church, Ms. Schwarz.

May not count towards a physics concentration.

Two 75-minute periods.

II. Intermediate

205b. Nineteenth Century Philosophy (1)

After a brief overview of Kant’s “critical revolution” and its immediate aftermath, we will study the thought of five major European thinkers: Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche. Themes will include the sense of alienation felt in the wake of the Enlightenment; the limits of human reason; the critique of Kantian morality; philosophical pessimism; and the hope that art can fill the spiritual void left by the collapse of the Christian worldview. Mr. Raymond.

Prerequisite: one 100-level course in philosophy or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

210b. Neo-Confucianism and Chinese Buddhism (1)

210-51: Introduction to Neo-Confucianism, one of the most influential intellectual movements in China and all of East Asia. Neo-Confucianism combines a profound metaphysics with a subtle theory of ethical cultivation. There will also be some discussion of Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism whose views of the self and ethics are the primary targets of the Neo-Confucian critique. No familiarity with Chinese culture is assumed, but a previous 100-level course in philosophy is a prerequisite because this course assumes students have the ability to tackle subtle issues in metaphysics, personal identity, and ethics. Mr. Van Norden.

Prerequisite: one 100-level philosophy course.

215a. Phenomenology and Existential Thought (1)

Since the ancient Greeks, philosophy has interpreted the drama of human life in terms of knowledge rather than will, truth rather than passion. During the 20th century, phenomenology and existentialism offer the most radical critique of this “intellectualist” view of both philosophy and the self. A new cognitive value is attributed to moods, beliefs, and states of consciousness as well as to some spheres of human interaction such as authenticity, temporality, and intentionality. In this course, we shall explore the great arch of existential and phenomenological thought as developed by such figures as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, and Levinas. Ms. Borradori.

Prerequisite: one unit of philosophy or permission of the instructor.

220a. Metaphysics (1)

Metaphysics is the philosophical study of the nature of reality. In this course, we will examine a number of interlocking metaphysical issues. Are there in reality only particular things, or are there universals--essences that many different things may have in common? What endows a thing with its identity, rendering it different from other things? Is the natural order mere happenstance, or does some kind of necessity make it hang together the way it does? Is an experience a private affair, discernible only by the one who has it? And what is the subject, self, or ego? Does it exist, or is it some kind of illusion? Are we capable of discovering the answers to these questions? Do such questions even have answers? What, ultimately, is the status of metaphysics itself? Mr. Winblad.

Prerequisite: one unit of philosophy or permission of the instructor.

222b. Philosophy of Language (1)

Language is our primary means of expressing our thoughts. Language is also one of our primary means of representing the world. As a result, philosophers in the analytic tradition have attempted to gain a better understanding of standard philosophical issues through the study of how we understand and use language to express our thoughts, communicate, and represent the world. We will look at the philosophical study of meaning and truth as well as the philosophical problems that such studies purport to illuminate, solve, or dissolve. We will discuss referential theories of meaning originating with Frege and Russell, use-theories of meaning associated with Strawson and Austin, Grice's theory of implicature, Tarski and truth-conditional theories of meaning, and the theory of direct reference. Philosophical problems will include ontology and essence, knowledge of objects, the problem of perception, freedom and determination, and necessity and a priority. Mr. Lam.

224b. Philosophy of Mind (1)

An exploration of competing theories of the mind—including theories that equate the mind with the brain, theories that regard the mind as a social construction, and theories that define the mind by reference to its characteristic functions. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these theories are compared—especially with respect to their understandings of consciousness, self-knowledge, emotion and moral responsibility. Ms. Church.

226. Philosophy of Science (1)

(Same as Science, Technology and Society 226) A study of the principles of scientific reasoning. Topics include explanation, justification, scientific rationality, realism versus instrumentalism, and laws. Mr. Winblad.

Not offered in 2013/14.

228a. Epistemology (1)

Epistemology is the study of knowledge, justification, and rationality. The theories we will study in this course will be understood as responses to increasingly radical skeptical arguments. We will begin with the problem of induction, which claims that we can never justifiably infer generalizations from particular cases, infer beliefs about the future from ones about the past, and infer from observable patterns to unobservable explanations. We will uncover various paradoxes about such inferences, and attempt to respond to them. We will then look at skeptical arguments that we do not know anything on the basis of sense perception, and the various theories of knowledge and justification that are built in response to such arguments. Of particular interest will be the Gettier problem, externalism versus internalism about knowledge and justification, foundationalism versus coherentism about justification, fallibism, and whether one can solve skeptical problems by noting that knowledge admits of degrees. Mr. Lam.

230a and b. Symbolic Logic (1)

230a: A study of the concepts and methods of formal logic. Topics include truth functional and quantificational validity, soundness, and completeness. Mr. Winblad.

230b: The study of concepts of symbolic logic. We will study the techniques of logical paraphrase and natural deduction. The investigation of properties of the formal systems are developed in this course. Mr. Lam.

234b. Ethics (1)

Why be moral? What does morality ask of us? What is the relation between morality and self-interest? What is happiness? What is the relation between a happy life and a meaningful life? Are there objective answers to ethical questions? or are whatever answers we give no more than the expressions of our subjective attitudes? These are some of the questions this course seeks to address. We proceed by reading seminal texts in the Western moral philosophical tradition alongside writings by contemporary moral philosophers. Mr. Seidman.

238b. Social and Political Philosophy (1)

This course introduces students to both the history of political philosophy and to contemporary debates within it. Our focus is upon the relationship between justice and equality. Mr. Kelly.

240b. Philosophy of Art and Aesthetics (1)

At the onset of modernity art was regarded by philosophers as a well demarcated field of philosophical investigation and named “aesthetics”. In the age of Kant, aesthetics is born as the study of the reasons that make some sensory experiences distinctly artistic, beautiful or sublime. In the 19th century, with Hegel and Schopenhauer, the meaning of the work of art is not to be found autonomously from the facts of life, but rather in their midst. We shall follow this attempt to de-aestheticize art in the context of both architecture’s modernist revolution and philosophy’s debate on the nature of metropolis. To this extent we shall examine projects by Walter Gropius and Mies Van der Rohe, and read texts by Georg Simmel, Walter Benjamin, and Martin Heidegger. In the last portion of the course, we shall explore the most radical dismantling of the aesthetic edifice in the work of artists and theorists in linguistics, philosophy, and architecture, including Luigi Ontani, Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, Jacques Derrida, and Peter Eisenman. Ms. Borradori.

Two 75-minute periods.

Not offered in 2013/14.

242a. The Philosophy of Music (1)

Music is an important part of our experience -- familiar and yet strange, releasing us from thinking but also revealing new ways of thinking. This course addresses some philosophical themes as they appear in music, providing a more visceral sense of alternative perspectives on the world, and expanding our appreciation what music has to offer. We will listen to many different types of music -- old and new, classical and popular, with discussion focused around topics such as the difference between music and sound, the nature of musical ‘meaning’, the erotics of music, the significance of repetition and variation, resolutions and dissolutions, time and timelessness. Readings will be drawn from a variety of philosophers, including Kierkegaard, Schopenhauer, Adorno, Kivy, Levinson, Tanner, and Scruton. Ms. Church.

Prerequisite: One philosophy class or one course on musical theory or musical culture.

250a. Feminist Theory (1)

(Same as Women's Studies 250) The central purpose of the course is to understand a variety of theoretical perspectives in feminism - including liberal, radical, socialist, psychoanalytic and postmodern perspectives. We explore how each of these feminist perspectives is indebted to more 'mainstream' theoretical frameworks (for example, to liberal political theory, Marxism, and psychoanalysis). We also examine the ways in which each version of feminist theory raises new questions and challenges for these 'mainstream' theories. We attempt to understand the theoretical resources that each of these perspectives provides the projects of feminism, how they highlight different aspects of women's oppression and offer a variety of different solutions. We look at the ways in which issues of race, class and sexuality figure in various theoretical feminist perspectives and consider the divergent takes that different theoretical perspectives offer on issues such as domestic violence, pornography, housework and childcare, economic equality, and respect for cultural differences. Ms. Narayan.

Prerequisite: one unit of philosophy or women's studies.

Two 75-minute periods.

260a. Philosophy and the Arts: Censorship in the Arts (1)

Acts of artistic censorship—social, religious, and political—are based on certain truth claims and on reactions to offending rival truth claims made by the arts. This includes issues about what are proper and improper forms of representation, what is representable and unrepresentable. Art is not the only target of censorship but is a privileged key because it is associated with three areas of offence—obscenity, blasphemy, and sedition. Censorship not only plays an inhibitive, restricted role but less appreciated, plays a productive role in the very formation of artworks. We shall explore a sense of truth in these discussions that is creative, revisionary, and dissentual and make use of theoretical writings by Plato, Rousseau, Mill, and Heidegger. We focus on five momentous cases of censorship: James Joyce’s Ulysees, Salmon Rushdie’s The Satanic Verses, Anselm Kiefer’s painting about the German past, Robert Mapplethorpe’s homoerotic photographs, and the paintings and installations of Ai Wei Wei. Mr. Murray.

Two 75-minute periods.

270. Queer Theory: Choreographies of Sex and Gender (1)

This course examines contemporary theoretical work on the meaning of gender and sexuality with special reference to gay and lesbian studies. We consider questions such as the identity and multiplication of gender and sexes, forms of erotic desire, the performativity of gender norms, styles of life, marriage, and their relationship to medical, psychiatric, legal and criminological discourses. Mr. Murray.

Not offered in 2013/14.

281a. Confucius (1/2)

This six-week course is an introduction to the sayings and dialogues of Confucius and his immediate disciples as recorded in the Analects. We shall examine the historical context of Confucius, and his views on the virtues, human nature, ethical cultivation and his Way for living and organizing society. Mr. Van Norden.

Two 75-minute periods.

282b. Taoism (1/2)

This six-week course is an introduction to two of the seminal texts of ancient Taoism. We shall examine the historical context of these works, their critiques of conventional ethics, and their distinctive mystical visions. Mr. Van Norden.

Two 75-minute periods.

290a and b. Field Work (1/2 or 1)

Supervised by the department faculty.

298a and b. Independent Work (1/2 or 1)

Supervised by the department faculty.

III. Advanced

300a. Senior Thesis (1/2)

Yearlong development of an extended philosophical essay in consultation with a faculty adviser. Students must register for 300 for (a) term and 301 for (b) term. Full year course. Advisors: All Faculty.

301b. Senior Thesis (1/2)

Yearlong development of an extended philosophical essay in consultation with a faculty adviser. Students must register for 300 for (a) term and 301 for (b) term. Full year course. Advisors: All Faculty.

302a or b. Senior Thesis (1)

By special permission only. This one semester course may be substituted for 300a-301b after consultation with your advisor.

310a and b. Seminar in Analytic Philosophy (1)

310a: Philosophical Analysis. In this seminar we will examine a number of recent developments in the ongoing relationship between philosophy and empirical inquiry. We shall begin with the proposal that philosophers finally abandon the "linguistic turn," the characteristically twentieth-century approach to philosophical theorizing in which linguistic analysis is methodologically primary. Then we will explore the controversy swirling around experimental philosophers’ use of procedures drawn from empirical psychology in critically evaluating philosophical claims and methods. Finally, we shall investigate two contemporary debates in which philosophers and scientists disagree about what they have to teach one another. The first concerns the status of evolutionary theory; the other revolves around the issue of whether science can explain why there is anything at all. Mr. Winblad.

310b: Imagination. An investigation into different kinds of imagination and their contributions to our knowledge of what is possible, our knowledge of other minds, our capacity for moral thought an action, and our appreciation of art. Ms. Church.

Prerequisite: 200-level philosophy course or permission of the instructor.

311a. Seminar in Cognitive Science (1)

The topic of the seminar varies regularly, but is always focused on some aspect of thought, language, perception, or action considered from the unique, synthetic perspective of cognitive science. The seminar is team-taught by faculty members in the program. May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

Topic for 2013/14a: Semantics and Pragmatics: Cognitive Science and Philosophy. (Same as Cognitive Science 311) When people use language to express their thoughts and communicate information, what pieces of information are expressed in virtue of the semantic content (or meaning) of the language, and what pieces of information are expressed in virtue of extra-linguistic features of the environment in which the language is used? This is the primary organizing question of the course, with a focus on evidence from the philosophy of language, linguistics, language acquisition, and both functional and neural aspects of language comprehension. Ms. Andrews and Mr. Lam.

Prerequisites: special permission of the instructor, and Cognitive Science 100 and either one Cognitive Science 200-level course or Philosophy 222 or Philosophy 230.

One 3-hour period.

320b. Seminar in the History of Philosophy (1)

An in-depth examination of the historical interpretation of the philosophers and their beliefs and place in the evolution of philosophical issues.

Topic for 2013/14b: Plato's Republic. This seminar will be devoted to a close study of Plato’s Republic, one of the most influential and challenging texts in the history of Western thought. We will approach the dialogue from a variety of angles, with attention to the interplay between theoretical argument, historical context, dramatic irony, allusion, and literary form. One goal will be to understand how the diverse inquiries pursued in the dialogue—into justice in the city and the individual soul; the correct role of art in education; the complexity of human motivation; and the nature of philosophical insight—fit together into a unified whole. Mr. Raymond.

Prerequisite: upper level philosophy courses or permission of the instructor.

One 2-hour period.

330a and b. Seminar: Ethics & Theory of Value (1)

A seminar offering an in-depth exploration of a chosen topic in Ethics and Theory of Value.

2013/14a: Capitalism, Globalization, Economic Justice and Human Rights. This seminar focuses on questions about capitalism, globalization, and economic justice. We address debates on private property and the division of labor, and examine the functions of states, markets, corporations, international institutions like the IMF and WTO, and development agencies in economic globalization and their roles in securing or undermining human rights. Ms. Narayan.

2013/14b: Topic to be determined. Mr. Kelly.

Prerequisites: several lower level philosophy courses.

340a and b. Seminar in Continental Philosophy (1)

340a: The Late Foucault. This seminar will conduct a critical study of the late lectures of Michel Foucault delivered at the College de France in the 1970s and 1980s. Unpublished in his lifetime, they are among the most original and challenging of Foucault’s works. Included among them will be, Psychiatric Power, 1973-1974,Society Must Be Defended, 1975-1976, and The Courage of Truth: The Government of Self and Others II, 1983-84. Mr. Murray.

340b: Derrida and His Umbrella. This advanced seminar seeks to explore the philosophy of Jacques Derrida and his deconstructive exchanges with thinkers past and present, including Kant, Heidegger, Blanchot, Bataille, Marx, Levinas, and Habermas. The focus of the course will be Derrida’s ethical and political writings. Special emphasis will be given to the cluster of issues that occupied Derrida after the end of the Cold War: these include democracy, hospitality, witnessing and the politics of memory, religion, terrorism, the human and the animal. Ms. Borradori.

One 2-hour period.

350b. Seminar on Modernism, Post Modernism, and Hermeneutics (1)

(Same as Chinese and Japanese 350) The Modernism/Postmodernism/Hermeneutic divide stretches across many different disciplines, including philosophy, literary theory, history, religious studies, political science, anthropology and others. Roughly, these approaches argue over whether rationality, truth, and ethics are culturally and historically universal (Modernism), incommensurable (postmodernism) or dialogical (Hermeneutics). This course explores these approaches with an emphasis on how they apply in the context of one culture trying to understand another. Requirements include regular class participation that shows familiarity with the the readings and many brief essays. Mr. Van Norden.

Prerequisite: courses at the 200-level.

One 2-hour period.

382. Seminar: Special Topics in Philosophy (1)

Topic for 2013/14a: Love and Character. According to one familiar thought, you are what you love; according to another, the best lovers see us for who we really are. This seminar will investigate both of these thoughts, and their relationship to one another. How does who or what you love shape your character, values, or identity as an agent? When you are loved in the best sense, what, if anything, are you loved for? We will explore possible answers to these questions in the work of Plato, Aristotle, Montaigne, Martha Nussbaum, Harry Frankfurt, and others. Mr. Bagley.

399a or b. Senior Independent Work (1/2 or 1)

The department.