Urban Studies Program

The Urban Studies Program is designed as a multidisciplinary concentration in the study of cities and urbanization. Students examine the development of cities and their surrounding regions; the role of cities in human history; the social problems of urban life; the design of the built environment; and past and present efforts at planning for the future of urban societies. There are four major purposes of the program: (1) to introduce students to a temporal range and spatial variety of urban experience and phenomena; (2) to equip students with methodological tools to enable them to investigate and analyze urban issues; (3) to engage students experientially in a facet of the urban experience; and (4) to develop within the student a deeper grasp of these issues through advanced study within at least two (multi)disciplinary approaches.

Requirements for Concentration:

1) 14 units, including Introduction to Urban Studies (100), Urban Theory (200), and the seminar on Advanced Debates in Urban Studies (303).

2) One unit of Research Methods appropriate to the student’s concentration in Urban Studies, chosen from Anthropology 245, Art 102-103, Art 176/276/375, Economics 209, Geography 220/224/230 , Mathematics 141, Political Science 207, Psychology 200, or Sociology 254.

3) Urban Studies Cluster. Two units at the 200-level, originating in Urban Studies or cross-listed with Urban Studies (not including fieldwork or independent study).  Additional Urban Studies courses may comprise one of the 3-course (multi)disciplinary clusters below.

4) Two 3-course (multi)disciplinary clusters, comprised of two 200-level and one 300-level courses drawn from distinct fields. One cluster may focus on additional courses in Urban Studies. Other clusters might include such disciplines as Art or Architecture, Economics, Geography, History, Political Science, and Sociology, or other multidisciplinary concentrations such as Africana Studies, Asian Studies, Environmental Studies, International Studies, Latin American and Latino/a Studies, and Women’s Studies.

5) One unit of fieldwork (URBS 290).

6) Senior Thesis. A one unit, two-semester thesis must be completed to be considered for honors in Urban Studies. Majors will have the option of taking one additional 300-level course, instead of the senior thesis, in the disciplinary concentration or in Urban Studies.

Recommendations for the Major:

1) Foreign Language. Competency through the third year college level, as demonstrated by completion of the relevant courses or examination.

2) Structured Study Away Experience. This is especially recommended for those who are interested in architecture and/or global, historical and comparative issues, and area studies.

3) Outside of Major Course work. This includes Introduction to Macroeconomics and Introduction to Microeconomics, study of aesthetics, ethics and social and political philosophy, and study of theories of confrontation and liberation, concentrating on class movements, critical race theory, anti-racism, feminist theory, queer theory and environmental theory.

Requirements for Correlate Sequence: Six units including Urban Studies 100, which should be taken no later than the Junior year, one unit of Urban Studies 200, two 200-level courses, reflecting the concentration of the student in the Urban Studies correlate, two 300-level courses in accordance with the intellectual path set by the 200-level work. No more than two transfer units may be credited towards the sequence. No more than one unit may overlap with the major.

After declaration of the major or correlate sequence, no NRO work will be permissible or applicable to the major.

I. Introductory

100a and b. Introduction to Urban Studies (1)

As an introduction to urban inquiry, this course focuses on the historical evolution of cities, socio-spatial conflicts, and changing cultural meanings of urbanism. We examine the formation urban hierarchies of power and privilege, along with their attendant contradictions and social movements of contestation, in terms of the rights to the city and the prospects for inclusive, participatory governance. Instructors coordinate the course with the assistance of guest presentations by other Urban Studies faculty, thereby providing insight into the architecture, cultures, economics, geography, history, planning, and politics of the city. The course involves study of specific urban issues, their theory and methodology, in anticipation of subsequent work at more advanced levels. Ms. Brawley, Ms. Gregory, Mr. Koechlin.

Two 75-minute periods.

II. Intermediate

200a. Urban Theory (1)

This course reviews the development of theories regarding human behavior in cities and the production of space. The course spans the twentieth century, from the industrial city to the themed spaces of contemporary cities. Literature and topics examined to include the German school, urban ecology, debates in planning and architecture, political economy, and the cultural turns in urban studies. Mr. Nevarez.

Prerequisite: Urban Studies 100 or permission of the instructor.

213. Urban Planning and Practice (1)

An introduction to planning and practice. Course examines successful and unsuccessful cases of urban and regional planning events, compares and evaluates current growth management techniques, and explores a wide variety of planning methods and standards. Topics include citizen participation, goal setting, state and local land use management approaches, environmental protection measures, affordable housing strategies, transportation, and urban design. Mr. Clarke.

Not offered in 2012/13.

222b. Urban Political Economy (1)

(Same as International Studies 222) This course employs the multidisciplinary lens of political economy to analyze economic development, social inequality, and political conflict in contemporary cities. Why do people and resources tend to concentrate in cities? How does the urban landscape promote and constrain political conflict and distribute economic and social rewards? How are local outcomes influenced by global political-economic forces? The course develops an analytical framework to make sense of a variety of urban complexities, including poverty, segregation, suburban sprawl, the provision of affordable housing, global migration, and the effects of neoliberalism on rich and poor cities throughout the world. Mr. Koechlin.

230a. Making Cities (1)

This course surveys the production of urban space, from the mid 19th century industrial city to today's post-bubble metropolis. Theories of urban planning and design, landscape architecture, infrastructure and real estate development are discussed in the context of a broad range of social, cultural, political and economic forces that have shaped urban space. Looking at American and European case studies, we ask: Who made decisions on the production of urban space? How were urban interventions actually brought about? Who were the winners and losers? Mr. Armborst.

Two 75-minute periods.

232b. Contemporary Urbanism (1)

This course looks at the evolving theories and practices of urban design since 1960, with a focus on current projects and debates. Initially conceived as the design discipline of the public realm, urban design has been transformed and redefined in relation to the changing modes of production of urban space. Today, in an urban environment that is largely shaped by forces and processes beyond the control of architects, planners and designers, the role of urban design is highly contingent on specific actors and projects. In addition to discussing readings from the past 50 years, we study a number of practices and projects from around the world. Mr. Armborst.

Two 75-minute periods.

237. Community Development (1)

(Same as Sociology 237) This course provides hands-on lessons in nonprofit organizations, urban inequality, and economic development that are intended to supplement theoretical perspectives offered in other classes. Students examine local efforts to revitalize neighborhoods, provide social services, leverage social capital, and promote homeowner and business investment in the contemporary city. A community development initiative in the City of Poughkeepsie (to be determined) provides the case study around which lectures, readings, and guest speakers are selected. The course includes a special weekly lab section during which students volunteer at local organizations, conduct fieldwork, or otherwise independently gather and analyze data in support of the case study. Students are graded for both their comprehension of course materials (in essays and exams) and their participation in the community-development initiative (through fieldwork and the final report written collectively by the instructor and students). Mr. Nevarez.

Two 2-hour periods.

Not offered in 2012/13.

245. The Ethnographer's Craft (1)

(Same as Anthropology 245) This course introduces students to the methods employed in constructing and analyzing ethnographic materials through readings, classroom lectures, and discussions with regular field exercises. Students gain experience in participant-observation, fieldnote-taking, interviewing, survey sampling, symbolic analysis, the use of archival documents, and the use of contemporary media. Attention is also given to current concerns with interpretation and modes of representation. Throughout the semester, students practice skills they learn in the course as they design, carry out, and write up original ethnographic projects. Ms. Lowe Swift.

Not offered in 2012/13.

249. The Politics of City, Suburb, Neighborhood (1)

(Same as Political Science 249) An examination of the development, organization, and practice of the varied forms of politics in metropolitan areas. Main themes include struggles between machine and reform politicians in cities; fiscal politics and urban pre-occupations with economic growth, racial and class politics; changes in federal urban policies; neighborhood politics and alternative forms of community organization; suburban politics and race/class. Mr. Plotkin.

Not offered in 2012/13.

250b. Urban Space/Place/Environment (1)

(Same as Geography 250) Now that most of the global population lives in urban areas, the unprecedented size and interdependence of megacities pose pressing socioeconomic, political, and environmental problems. This course focuses on the making of urban spaces, places, and environments at a variety of geographical scales (local, regional, and global). We analyze the interactions of society and space, sense of place and place making, sustainability theory, and governance in urban settings. We study how spatial and environmental justice are related to various issues: urban metabolism, water, and resource use; land use and public space; transit-oriented development; urban ecology and restoration; green architecture and building; official programs and citizen movements for livable cities. Mr. Godfrey.

Two 75-minute periods.

252a. Cities of the Global South: Urbanization, Spatial Dynamics, and Social Change in Developing World (1)

(Same as Geography and International Studies 252) The largest wave of urbanization in human history is now underway in the Global South—the developing countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. The bulk of the world’s urban population already resides in these regions, and their demographic dominance is steadily becoming more pronounced. Despite the economic dynamism of China, India, Brazil, and other countries, high rates of urbanization and poverty often coincide. As a result, many of the biggest challenges of the 21st century are likely to arise in cities of the Global South. This course examines this problematic in terms of the legacies of colonial urbanism, world-systems theory and global cities, urban economic growth, social and spatial justice, infrastructure and service provision, slums and informal housing, environmental sustainability and risk, and urban planning and governance. We apply these issues to such cities as Buenos Aires, Mexico City, and Rio de Janeiro in Latin America; Lagos and Capetown in sub-Saharan Africa; Cairo and Istanbul in the Middle East; and Guangzhou, Manila, and Mumbai in South and East Asia. Mr. Godfrey.

Prerequisite: a previous Geography or Urban Studies course.

Two 75-minute periods.

254. Victorian Britain (1)

(Same as History 254) This course examines some of the key transformations that Victorians experienced, including industrialization, the rise of a class-based society, political reform, and the women's movement. We explore why people then, and historians since, have characterized the Victorian age as a time of progress and optimism as well as an era of anxiety and doubt. Ms. Murdoch.

Not offered in 2012/13.

255b. Race, Representation, and Resistance in U.S. Schools (1)

(Same as Africana Studies, Education, and Sociology 255) This course seeks to interrogate the intersections of race, racism and schooling in the US context. In this course, we examine this intersection at the site of educational policy, media (particularly urban school movies) and K12 curricula- critically examining how representations in each shape the experiences of youth in school. Expectations, beliefs, attitudes and opportunities reflect societal investments in these representations, thus becoming both reflections and riving forces of these identities. Central to these representations is how theorists, educators and youth take them on, own them and resist them in ways that constrain possibility or create spaces for hope. Ms. Cann.

Two 75-minute periods.

258. Sustainable Landscapes: Bridging Place and Environment (1)

(Same as Geography 258) Geographers have long understood the relationship of aesthetic landscapes and place to include concepts of identity, control, and territory. Increasingly we consider landscape aesthetics to involve environmental quality as well. How do these contrasting sets of priorities meet in the process of landscape design and analysis? In this course we begin by examining regional and local histories of landscape design and their relationship to concepts of place, territory, and identity. We then consider landscape ecological approaches to marrying aesthetic and environmental priorities in landscapes. We investigate local issues such as watershed quality, native plantings, and runoff management in order to consider creative ways to bridge these once-contrary approaches to understanding the landscapes we occupy. We focus on projects on topics related to the ongoing Vassar campus landscape study. Ms. Cunningham.

Not offered in 2012/13.

270a. Gender and Social Space (1)

(Same as Geography and Women's Studies 270) This course explores the ways in which gender informs the spatial organization of daily life; the interrelation of gender and key spatial forms and practices such as the home, the city, the hotel, migration, shopping, community activism, and walking at night. It draws on feminist theoretical work from diverse fields such as geography, architecture, anthropology and urban studies not only to begin to map the gendered divisions of the social world but also to understand gender itself as a spatial practice. Ms. Brawley.

Two 75-minute periods.

272b. Buildings and Cities after the Industrial Revolution (1)

(Same as Art 272) Architecture and urbanism were utterly changed by the subversive forces of the industrial revolution. Changes in materials (iron and steel), building type (train stations, skyscrapers), building practice (the rise of professional societies and large corporate firms), and newly remade cities (London, Paris, Vienna) provided a setting for “modern life.” The course begins with the liberation of the architectural imagination around 1750 and terminates with the rise of modernism at the beginning of the twentieth century (Gropius, Le Corbusier). Mr. Adams.

Prerequisite: Art 105-106 or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

273. Modern Architecture and Beyond (1)

(Same as Art 273) European and American architecture and city building (1920 to the present); examination of the diffusion of modernism and its reinterpretation by corporate America and Soviet Russia. Discussion of subsequent critiques of modernism (postmodernism, deconstruction, new urbanism) and their limitations. Issues in contemporary architecture. Mr. Adams.

Prerequisite: Art 105-106, or 170, or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

Not offered in 2012/13.

275a. Rome: Architecture and Urbanism (1)

(Same as Art 275) The Eternal City has been transformed many times since its legendary founding by Romulus and Remus. This course presents an overview of the history of the city of Rome in antiquity, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Baroque period, and modern times. The course examines the ways that site, architecture, urbanism, and politics have interacted to produce one of the world’s densest urban fabrics. The course focuses on Rome’s major architectural and urban monuments over time (e.g., Pantheon, St. Peters, the Capitoline hill) as well as discussions of the dynamic forms of Roman power and religion. Literature, music and film also will be included as appropriate. Mr. Adams.

Art 105-106, or 170 or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

277. The Making of the "American Century," 1890 - 1945 (1)

(Same as History 277) Focuses on major social, political, and cultural developments during the decades when the United States emerged as the preeminent industrial power. The changes in the social and political institutions which emerged out of the crises of the 1890s, the Great Depression, and World War II. The growth of mass consumption and mass leisure in this very diverse society. Ms. Cohen.

Not offered in 2012/13.

280b. Visual Urbanism (1)

This course examines correspondences between the emergent metropolis and practices of urban spectatorship. We approach the modernization of vision as an aspect of capitalist urbanization, as we engage the shifting media forms that have refracted and regulated modernity's urban conditions from the mid-19th century to the present: camera obscura, magic lantern, window display, crime photography, film noir, snapshot, broadcast television, billboard, hand-held video, SimCity, Google earth, CCTV, immersive VR. Issues we investigate include: the increasing predominance of visual culture in urban everyday life; the distracted attention of the urban spectator as a mode of modern subjectivity; the role of the visual in shaping both official and vernacular understandings of the city; the use of city image and urban brand in urban development; the merging of physical and information space as urban landscapes become media-saturated environments; urban surveillance and the use of the visual as a vector of modern political power. Throughout, we approach urban visibility as a fiercely ambivalent force: both a source of spectacle and a tool to render legible the hidden powers that structure urban everyday life. Readings include works by Roland Barthes, Jonathan Beller, Walter Benjamin, Guliano Bruno, Susan Buck-Morss, Christine Boyer, Rey Chow, Elizabeth Currid, Jonathan Crary, Guy Debord, Anne Friedberg, Eric Gordon, Tom Gunning, Miriam Greenberg, Frederic Jameson, Rem Koolhaas, Kevin Lynch, W.T.J. Mitchell, Venessa Schwartz, William White, and Raymond Williams. Ms. Brawley.

Two 75-minute periods.

290a or b. Field Work (1/2 or 1)

Individual projects through field work office, under supervision of one of the participating instructors. May be elected during the college year or during the summer.

Special permission.

Unscheduled.

298a or b. Independent Work (1/2 or 1)

Individual project of reading or research, under supervision of one of the participating instructors.

III. Advanced

300a. Senior Thesis (1/2)

A thesis written in two semesters for one unit. The Program.

Yearlong course 300-301.

301b. Senior Thesis (1/2)

A thesis written in two semesters for one unit. The Program.

Yearlong course 300-301.

303a and b. Advanced Debates in Urban Studies (1)

This seminar focuses on selected issues of importance in Urban Studies. Topics vary according to the instructor. The course is required of all majors and may be taken during the junior or senior years; it can be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

Topic for 2012/13a: Memory and the City. Urban sites are important sources of collective memory, cultural identity, tourism, and political symbolism in our contemporary globalized world. This seminar examines selected cityscapes in terms of their power to remember the past, preserve the present, and envision the future. After examining the theory and practice of memory with reference to several historic cities, we focus primarily on debates in New York City. Students carry out research on related topics of urban memory. Ms. Batur and Mr. Godfrey.

Topic for 2012/13b: Cities After Society. This seminar investigates the emerging dynamics of urbanization and urban life amidst the structured disintegration of society at two levels. From above, globalization has weakened the economic integrity and political capacity of the nation-state. From below, class, bureaucracy, the nuclear family and other modern institutions have lost much of their power to reproduce social structure, unleashing new social risks and freedoms in a dynamic known as individualization. As theorists attempt to understand these changes and their consequences for cities, a new kind of social science has begun to develop, unburdened by increasingly problematic assumptions of the modern nation-state framework and the spatial fixity of groups, institutions and cultures within a bounded ‘society.' Mr. Nevarez.

Prerequisite: Urban Studies 100 and 200 or equivalent.

Note: Enrollment by Special Permission.

One 3-hour period.

320. Mapping the Middle Landscape (1)

A majority of Americans today live, work and shop in an environment that Leo Marx has termed “the middle landscape”: the suburban and exurban area between city and countryside. This reading and research seminar investigates some of the middle landscape’s peculiar spatial products, such as master planned communities, mega-malls and ethnoburbs. The investigation will focus on the physical environment as well as the general attitudes, fears and economic forces that shaped this environment. After a series of introductory lectures and discussions, students will produce detailed case studies, using a variety of mapping techniques. Mr. Armborst.

One 3-hour period.

Not offered in 2012/13.

340. Advanced Urban and Regional Studies (1)

(Same as Geography 340) Previous topics include: Ethnic Geography and Transnationalism and World Cities: Globalization, Segregation, and Defensive Urbanism.

One 3-hour period.

Not offered in 2012/13.

346. Musical Urbanism (1)

How is the urban experience represented aesthetically? How do cities sustain artistic milieus and cultural production? What is genuinely 'local' about local culture? This seminar takes these questions up through the case of twentieth century popular music and related cultural expressions and media. We inquire into the complex and dynamic relationships between (cultural) urbanism and (spatial, economic, demographic) urbanization by examining the urban dimensions of popular music; its inspiration, production, transmission, consumption, and appreciation, as documented by social research, literary fiction, film, and sound recordings. Additionally, we investigate the complementarities and tensions of empirical, literary, and critical methods to knowing and representing the city. Mr. Nevarez, Mr. Hsu.

Not offered in 2012/13.

350. New York City as a Social Laboratory (1)

(Same as Environmental Studies 350) In a classic essay on urban studies, sociologist Robert Park once called the city "a laboratory or clinic in which human nature and social processes may be conveniently and profitably studied." The scale, dynamism, and complexity of New York City make it a social laboratory without equal. This seminar provides a multidisciplinary inquiry into New York City as a case study in selected urban issues. Classroom meetings are combined with the field-based investigations that are a hallmark of Urban Studies. Site visits in New York City allow meetings with scholars, officials, developers, community leaders and others actively involved in urban affairs. Topics for the seminar may change from year to year, in which case the course may be repeated for credit.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2012/13.

352. The City in Fragments (1)

(Same as Media Studies 352) In this seminar, we use the concept of the fragment to explore the contemporary city, and vice versa. We draw on the work of Walter Benjamin, for whom the fragment was both a central symptom of urban modernity and a potentially radical mode of inquiry. We also use the figure of the fragment to explore and to experiment with the situationist urbanism of Guy Debord, to address the failure of modernist dreams for the city, and to reframe the question of the "global" in contemporary discussions of global urbanization. Finally, we use the fragment to destabilize notions of experience and evidence—so central to positivist understandings of the city—as we make regular visits to discover, as it were, non-monumental New York. Readings include works by Walter Benjamin, Stefano Boeri, Christine Boyer, Guy Debord, Rosalyb Deytsche, Paul Gilroy, Rem Koolhaas, Henri Lefebvre, Thomas Lacquer, Saskia Sassen, Mark Wigley, and others. Ms. Brawley, Mr. Chang.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2012/13.

356b. Environment and Land Use Planning (1)

(Same as Environmental Studies and Geography 356) This seminar focuses on land-use issues such as open-space planning, urban design, transportation planning, and the social and environmental effects of planning and land use policies. The focus of the course this year is impacts of planning policies (such as transportation, zoning, or growth boundaries) on environmental quality, including open space preservation, farmland conservation, and environmental services. We begin with global and regional examples and then apply ideas in the context of Dutchess County's trajectory of land use change and planning policies. Ms. Cunningham.

Prerequisite: one 200-level course in Geography, Urban Studies or Environmental Studies.

One 3-hour period.

366b. Art and Activism: Vision and Critique in the Black Arts and Women's Art Movements in the US (1)

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

One 2-hour period.

Not offered in 2012/13.

367. Urban Education Reform (1)

(Same as Education 367) This seminar examines American urban education reform from historical and contemporary perspectives. Particular attention is given to the political and economic aspects of educational change. Specific issues addressed in the course include school governance, standards and accountability, incentive-based reform strategies, and investments in teacher quality.

Prerequisite: Education 235 or permission of the instructor.

One 2-hour period.

Not offered in 2012/13.

369a. Themes in Twentieth Century Urban History: Social Reform and the Evolution of the Welfare State (1)

(Same as History 369) Examines the growth of labor reform, school reform, and social insurance, beginning with the Progressive Era through the New Deal, the war years after, to the Great Society and the present. Explores how the development of the welfare state affected Americans of different social, racial, ethnic backgrounds, and gender. Focuses on how these various groups acted to shape the evolution of the welfare state as well. Ms. Cohen.

370b. The Architectural Book (1)

(Same as Art 370) The seminar examines the development of the architectural treatise from Vitruvius to Le Corbusier. We base this class in the Vassar College Library, rich in architectural texts. We travel to New York and New Haven for further examination of original works. The course combines a history of the book with the development of architectural theory. Mr. Adams.

Prerequisite: a 200-level course in architectural history or permission of the instructor.

One 2-hour period.

373a. Adolescent Literacy (1)

(Same as Education 373) This course combines research, theory and practice in the context of an urban middle school. Concurrently with tutoring a student, we engage in case study research about the literacy's our students accept and resist in the various disciplines. We define literacy broadly and look at how school literacy compares and contrasts to the literacy's valued and in use in contexts outside of school. We explore how literacy learning is constructed through methods and curriculum with a special emphasis on the diversities at play in middle and high school classrooms. Conceptual understandings of knowledge, strategies that support attaining that knowledge and the role of motivation in learning are emphasized. Ms. McCloskey.

One 2-hour period; one hour of laboratory.

375a. Democratic Engagement (1)

(Same as Political Science 375) This course examines classic and contemporary theories of democracy, community organizing, and activism, with special attention to democratic community building at both the local and global levels. Classroom discussions will be enhanced by a focus on social media and new technologies, a community survey of local organizations, and brainstorming a community-based engagement project. Students can expect team-based collaborations, off-campus visits, guest lectures, and participation in local political campaign or organization.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

One 2-hour period.

Not offered in 2012/13.

384b. Advanced Seminar in Education - Urban Educational Reform (1)

(Same as Education 384) This seminar examines American urban education reform from historical and contemporary perspectives. In particular, we endeavor to answer the questions: How have public school reform efforts created more socially just spaces for youth? How have they served to perpetuate educational (and economic) inequalities? Particular attention is given to both large scale initiatives as well as grassroots community based efforts in educational change. Some topics include: democratic vs. top-down school governance, mayoral control, legislating standards and accountability (for students and teachers), teacher education and recruitment initiatives; the rise of charter schools and the increase of public school closings. While we draw from examples across the country, we focus more specifically on New York City, where many of these models have taken root. There are several public school visits during the semester as well. Ms. Hantzopoulos.

Prerequisite: Education 162 or 235.

One 2-hour period.

392a. Multidisciplinary Methods in Adolescent Education (1)

(Same as Education 392) This course is designed to engage prospective middle and high school educators in developing innovative, culturally relevant, and socially responsive curricula in a specific discipline, as well as in exploring ways to branch inter-disciplinarily. In particular, students will strive to develop a practice that seeks to interrupt inequities in schooling and engender a transformative experience for all students. The first part of the course explores what it means to employ social justice, multicultural, and critical pedagogies in education through self-reflections, peer exchange, and class texts. The remainder of the course specifically looks at strategies to enact such types of education, focusing on methods, curriculum design, and assessment. Students will explore of a variety of teaching approaches and develop ways to adapt them to particular subject areas and to the intellectual, social, and emotional needs of adolescent learners. There will be a particular emphasis on literacy development and meeting the needs of English Language Learners.

Prerequisite: Education 235.

One 2-hour period.

399a or b. Senior Independent Work (1/2 or 1)

Individual project of reading or research, under supervision of one of the participating instructors.