Greek and Roman Studies

Students who study in the Greek and Roman Studies department explore aspects of the ancient Mediterranean world with an emphasis on the cultures of Greece and Rome. At the heart of this exploration are the languages of the Greeks and the Romans, their literature, their history, their art, their philosophy, their religion, their politics, their relations with the other peoples of the Mediterranean, and their reception and interpretation by later cultures.

The story of "Classical" scholarship goes back to the Library of Alexandria in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. The project that the scholars of the library undertook was to collect, copy and edit as many texts of Greek literature as they could find. The study of the Greeks and Romans still has at its core this act of preservation. But, like the Alexandrian scholars and perhaps more self-consciously, we acknowledge that we are also involved in an act of reinterpretation. Our goal is both to preserve the knowledge of ancient cultures but also to interpret that knowledge in the context of contemporary culture.

We bring to this project many different skills and many different methods. Again, at the heart of the enterprise is the philological skills that the Alexandrian scholars developed: the ability to look back at a "dead" language and imagine it in its living form, in order to be able to read the written remains as richly as possible. An ancient historian adds to this skill the ability to gather disparate kinds of fragmentary evidence, both literary and material, to reconstruct both the major national and international events that shaped these cultures and the texture of the lives of their peoples from day to day. In this they rely heavily on archaeologists who uncover the physical traces of the past and attempt to establish a chronology and a function for these remains. Literary scholars find in works of literature not only evidence for the aesthetic principles that govern the creation of literary works of art but also apply modern theoretical approaches that allow us to see literature as a reflection of social, political and religious assumptions.

But in the end every student of Greek and Roman Studies is using insights about the ancient world to enrich his or her understanding of our modern world. In the end what classicists develop is an intense self-consciousness about the nature of their own assumptions, fashioned by the world in which they live--assumptions which the study of antiquity allows us to question and assumptions which we must question in order to be able to focus our attention on the strange "otherness" of different cultures that have much to teach us.

Requirements for Concentration in Greek and Roman Studies: 10.5 units of GRST courses, including:

  • GRST 100;
  • Either GRST 225 (intermediate Greek) or GRST 245 (intermediate Latin); (Successful completion of GRST 125-126 or GRST 145-146 or appropriate prior language work in Greek or Latin is required to elect 225 or 245);
  • Either GRST 216 or GRST 217 (Greek or Roman History);
  • 3 units at the 300 level, excluding GRST 360-363;
  • GRST 360 or 361-362 or 363 taken in the senior year. All majors must complete a senior project in their senior year. The senior project can be fulfilled either by the production of an independent thesis (360 or 361-362 for 1 unit) or by the completion of a senior project concurrently with another 300 level course elected in the senior year (363 for ½ unit);
  • 4 additional units at least two of which must be above the 100 level. With approval of the major advisor, up to 2 units of relevant work from outside the department may be counted towards the 4 additional units.

Requirements for a Correlate Sequence in Greek and Roman Studies: 6 units of work in GRST at least 2 of which must be at the 300 level. Correlates should support or complement a student's concentration(s).

Recommendations: All students are strongly advised to study either Greek or Latin language at the 300-level.

Recommendations for graduate study: Students considering graduate work in Greek and Roman Studies should at a minimum have at least 2 units of 300 level work in one ancient language and 1 unit of 300 level work in the other. Proficiency in at least one relevant modern foreign language (e.g. French, Italian, German) is also recommended.

Departmental honors: In addition to the senior project students must elect 300-level work in the department both semesters of their senior year to be considered for honors.

Advisers: The department.

Courses in English Translation

Courses in English translation, numbered X00-X19 are taught entirely in English. No knowledge of Greek or Latin is required.

I. Introductory

100b. Then and Now: Reinterpreting Greece and Rome (1)

Here we are at the beginning of the 21st century, yet all around us we continue to see allusions to and creative engagements with Greek and Roman antiquity. From the bestseller list which features a novel claiming to reveal recently discovered books of the Odyssey to an HBO series that takes place in ancient Rome and comparisons of the post 9/11 United States to the Roman Empire in the news, the worlds of ancient Greece and Rome continue to be viscerally alive and compelling as sources for artistic and cultural production. Why is this so? In this course we examine the ways that the legacies of classical antiquity continue to be felt today and invite us to explore the cultures of Greece and Rome. The course serves as an interdisciplinary introduction to the study of Greek and Roman languages, literature, history, and archaeology and the interpretation of these cultures by subsequent civilizations. The course addresses both the complex political, social, intellectual, and cultural settings of the ancient world and the ways in which the study of antiquity can challenge and enrich our experience of the present. To pursue these questions we read ancient texts, examine material artifacts, study linguistic evidence, and engage with creative contemporary responses to antiquity and recent theoretical work on the study of the ancient world. In serving as an overview of the kinds of questions that contemporary culture inspires us to ask of and about antiquity and the materials and approaches that scholars use for their inquiries, the course prepares the student for further work in the department.

Ms. Friedman and Mr. Lott.

Two 75-minute periods.

101a. Civilization in Question (1)

(Same as College Course 101) This course undertakes to question civilization in various ways. First, by looking at texts from ancient, medieval, and renaissance cultures, as well as texts and films from our own; it introduces students to major works of the Western tradition and asks how they bring under scrutiny their own tradition. In particular we examine how the individual, community, justice and the divine are imagined in these texts. Second, because the course is team-taught by faculty from different disciplines, we explore the ways a text is interpreted and how different meanings are found in it because of the different perspectives brought to the class by its faculty. Finally, we reflect on the role questioning plays in the process of a liberal arts education and the different kinds of attitudes and intellectual outlooks we learn to bring tot he study of any text, which impels us to consider the ways we allow the past to inform and question the present and the present to inform and question our understanding of the past. Readings for the course vary from year to year, but have included Genesis, Exodus, and texts by Homer, Plato, Nietzsche, Foucault, and Walcott. Ms. Friedman (Greek and Roman Studies), Mr. Schreier (History).

Two 75-minute periods and one 50-minute discussion period.

102a. Cleopatra (1)

A famous historian once wrote "The true history of Antony and Cleopatra will probably never be known; it is buried too deep beneath the version of the victors." This course examines the life and times of Egypt's most famous queen, who was both a Hellenistic monarch, last of a dynasty founded by a companion of Alexander the Great, and a goddess incarnate, Pharaoh of one of the world's oldest societies. However, the ways in which Cleopatra has been depicted over the centuries since her death are equally intriguing, and the course considers versions of Cleopatra from the Romans, who saw her as a foreign queen who tried to steal their empire, to Shakespeare, Shaw, film and television to explore how different societies have created their own image of this bewitching figure. Mr. Lott.

Open only to freshmen; satisfies college requirement for a Freshman Writing Seminar.

Two 75-minute periods.

104a. Greek Archaeology (1)

This course examines sites and monuments of the ancient Greek world from the Bronze Age to the Classical period. We introduce archaeological methods, examine the history and developement of Greek archaelology from the origins of the field in the 1870's to the present, and trace the chronological development of Greek art and architecture across several major sites including Knossos, Mycenae, Olympia, Delphi, and Athens. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding and interpreting monuments in terms of their political, social, and economic contexts. Ms. Olsen.

Two 75-minute periods.

Alternate years.

180a. Classical Rhetoric and the 2012 Presidential Campaign (1)

We are all inundated by words and images intended to persuade, whether from advertisers, from supposedly neutral news sources, and, particularly in an election year, from politicians. All of these employ the techniques of classical rhetoric, which has its roots in the birth of democracy in ancient Greece and has remained central in western discourse until the present day. In this course we will consider the function of rhetorical speech in the ancient world and the role of rhetoric in contemporary American society, with particular attention to to ts use in the 2012 presidential campaign. Some may be surprised to discover the continuing relevance of the ancient theorists of rhetoric, even in an age when, one suspects, most purveyors of persuasive discourse are not familiar with those sources. Writing assignments will include analyses contemporary rhetoric, including speeches and advertisements from the campaign, as well as exercises aimed at making our own writing more persuasive. Mr. Dozier.

Open only to freshmen; satisfies college requirement for a Freshman Writing Seminar.

Two 75-minute periods.

181a. Satire from Archilochus to the Daily Show (1/2)

Satire is flourishing, as can be seen from the popularity of television shows such as The Daily Show, websites such as The Onion, and films such as Borat. This course explores the relationship of such contemporary satires to the ancient origins of the genre, the formal roots of which are to be found in ancient Rome, with thematic roots stretching back to some of the earliest poetry of ancient Greece. Attention is paid to the development of satire from antiquity to the present with particular emphasis on early-modern English language satire. Topics include the differences between Horatian and Juvenalian invective, the persona of the satirist, the place of satire in discussions of freedom of speech, and the role of satire in society in different time periods. Our ultimate goal is to deepen our understanding of this traditional genre???s continuing popularity and relevance in our own world. Students will have the opportunity to create their own satire of life at Vassar College. Mr. Dozier.

Two 75-minute periods.

Fulfills the Freshman Writing Seminar Requirement.

183b. Language, Style, and Meaning: From Ancient Greek to English (1/2)

In this 6 week course, taught jointly by the members of the department of Greek and Roman Studies, we examine how the languages of the ancient Greeks and Romans shaped he way they articulated meaning and understood the world. We will begin with an introduction to the basic vocabulary, syntactical structures, and stylistic devices of Latin and Greek and will then consider how those features of the ancient languages that have shaped the English language affect our own modes of creating meaning in language. Topics will include: the influence of Greek and Latin vocabulary, which provide up to 70% of English words; aspects of English expression that are informed by Greek and Roman theories of rhetoric; the symbolic power of the Greek and Latin languages, both as they continue to be used for example in modern architecture and institutions, and the differences in connotation between those aspects of English that are derived from Greek and Latin and those aspects derived from other languages. No prior knowledge of Latin or Greek is required.

Two 75-minute periods.

II. Intermediate

201b. Ancient Warfare (1)

This course examines the phenomenon of war in Greek and Roman antiquity. While not neglecting traditional military topics such as arms and armor, organization, tactics, and strategy, we seek a wider cultural understanding of war by exploring its social ideology, the role of women and other non-combatants, and its depiction in art and literature. Wars for discussion include the fictional Trojan War as well as historical wars such as the Persian Wars, the Peloponnesian War, the Punic Wars, and the Roman Civil War. Readings in English translation are selected from Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides, Caesar, and others. Mr. Brown

Prerequisite: any 100-level course in Classics, Greek, or Latin, or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

202. Myth (1)

This course examines ancient myth from a variety of theoretical perspectives. It compares Greek and Roman myth with other mythic traditions and explores different versions of the same myth within Greek and Roman culture. We also consider transformations of ancient myths into modem versions. Literary, artistic, and archaeological evidence provide ways to understand the function of myth in ancient Greek and Roman society. Mr. Dozier.

Not offered in 2012/13.

203. Wom (1)

(Same as Women's Studies 203) Greek and Roman literary and historical accounts abound with vividly drawn women such as Helen, Antigone, Medea, Livia, and Agrippina, the mother of Nero. But how representative were such figures of the daily lives of women throughout Greek and Roman antiquity? This course investigates the images and realities of women in the ancient Greek and Roman world, from the Greek Late Bronze Age (c. 1200 BCE) to the Roman Empire (up to the III c. CE) by juxtaposing evidence from literature, historical sources, and archaeological material. Throughout, the course examines the complex ways in which ancient women interacted with the institutions of the state, the family, religion, and the arts.

Not offered in 2012/13.

209b. From Homer to Omeros (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 209) No poet since James Joyce has been as deeply and creatively engaged in a refashioning of Homer than Derek Walcott, the Caribbean poet and 1992 Nobel Laureate. He has authored both a stage version of the Odyssey and a modern epic, Omeros, and in both of them he brings a decidedly post colonial and decidedly Caribbean idiom to Homer's ancient tales. In this course we devote ourselves to a close reading of these works alongside the appropriate sections of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. Our aim is both to understand the complexities of Walcott's use of the Homeric models and to discover the new meanings that emerge in Homer when we read him through Walcott's eyes. Ms. Friedman.

Prerequisite: any 100-level Greek and Roman Studies course or one unit of related work or special permission.

Two 75-minute periods.

Not offered in 2012/13.

210. Greek Art and Architecture (1)

(Same as Art 210) Sculpture, vase painting, and architecture from the Archaic and Classical periods, with glances back to the Bronze Age and forward to the Hellenistic kingdoms. Stylistic developments leading to the ideal types of hero, warrior, athlete, maiden, etc. are central to the course, along with the mythological subjects that glorified the city‑state and marked religious cults and the rituals of everyday life. Ms. D'Ambra.

Prerequisite: Art 105-106 or coursework in Greek and Roman Studies, or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

Not offered in 2012/13.

211a. Roman Art and Architecture (1)

(Same as Art 211) Sculpture, painting, and architecture in the Roman Republic and Empire. Topics include: the appeal of Greek styles, the spread of artistic and architectural forms throughout the vast empire and its provinces, the role of art as political propaganda for state and as status symbols for private patrons. Ms. D'Ambra.

Prerequisite: Art 105-106 or Greek and Roman Studies 216 or 217, or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

Not offered in 2012/13.

215b. The Art and Archaeology of Ancient Egypt (1)

(Same as Art 215) Ancient Egypt has long fascinated the public with its pyramids, mummies, and golden divine rulers. This course provides a survey of the archaeology, art, and architecture of ancient Egypt from the prehistoric cultures of the Nile Valley through the period of Cleopatra's rule and Roman domination. Topics to be studied include the art of the funerary cult and the afterlife, technology and social organization, and court rituals of the pharaohs, along with aspects of everyday life. Ms. D'Ambra.

Prerequisites: Art 105-106 or Greek and Roman Studies 216 or 217, or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

216b. History of the Ancient Greeks (1)

(Same as History 216) This course examines the history and culture of the ancient Greeks from the emergence of the city-state in the eighth century BCE to the conquests of Alexander the Great in 335 BCE. In addition to an outline of the political and social history of the Greeks, the course examines several historical, cultural, and methodological topics in depth, including the emergence of writing, Greek colonialism and imperialism, ancient democracy, polytheism, the social structures of Athenian society, and the relationship between Greeks and other Mediterranean cultures. Students both read primary sources (for example, Sappho, Tyrtaios, Herodotus, Thucydides, Aristophanes, and Plato) and examine sites and artifacts recovered through archaeology; the development of students' critical abilities to evaluate and use these sources for the study of history is a primary goal of the class. Ms. Olsen.

217. History of the Ancient Romans (1)

(Same as History 217) This course examines the history of the ancient Romans from the foundation of their city around the eighth century BCE to the collapse of their Mediterranean Empire in the fifth century CE. The course offers a broad historical outline of Roman history, but focuses on significant topics and moments in Roman history, including the Republican aristocracy, the civil and slave wars of the Late Republic, the foundation of the Empire by Caesar Augustus, urbanism, the place of public entertainments (gladiatorial combats, Roman hunts, chariot races, and theater) in society, the rise of Christianity, the processes of Romanization, and barbarization, and the political decline and fall of the Roman Empire. Students read primary sources such as Plautus, Cicero, Livy, Tacitus, and Suetonius, and secondary accounts dealing with important issues such as slavery, religious persecution and multiculturalism. Students also examine important archaeological sites and artifacts. The development of students' critical abilities to evaluate and use these sources for the study of history is a primary goal of the class. Mr. Lott.

Alternate years.

Not offered in 2012/13.

III. Advanced

301a. Seminar in Classical Civilization (1)

Topic for 2012/13a: Rome vs. Hannibal: The Era of the Punic Wars. This course examines the titanic conflict between two superpowers that put Rome on the road to rule the Mediterranean and left Punic Carthage a smoking ruin. Using the ancient accounts of authors such as Livy, Polybius, and Plutarch we consider the historical circumstances that led to the conflict, the course of the wars, and their aftermath. Topics will include the society of ancient Carthage; the military and diplomatic strategies of the famous generals Hannibal, Fabius, Maximus, and Scipio Africanus; the social and political impacts of military disaster; and the cultural milieu of wartime Rome, including religion, urban development, and literature. Mr. Lott.

Prerequisite: previous coursework in Greek and Roman Studies, History, or another related discipline and sophomore status.

Two 75-minute periods.

All readings are in English.

302b. The Blegen Seminar (1)

The course is offered by the Blegen Distinguished Visiting Research Professor or the Blegen Research Fellow in Classics, appointed annually to pursue research and lecture on his/her scholarly concerns in classical antiquity. We encourage students to take note of the fact that each Blegen Seminar is uniquely offered and will not be repeated. Since the topic changes every year, the course may be taken for credit more than once.

Topic for 2012/13b: Classical Rhetoric and Contemporary Persuasive

Discourse. The ancient Greeks and Romans developed a sophisticated theory of persuasion that encompassed the construction of arguments, the

arrangement of ideas, styles of expression, and even the self-fashioning of identity. In this class we will study how ancient theorists such as Aristotle, Isocrates, Cicero, and Quintilian thought persuasion worked and will consider the relevance of their ideas to a range of modern discourses that depend on persuasion, including those practiced in politics, advertising, law, and even the academy itself. Along the way we will examine how modern ideological debates replay ancient anxieties concerning the deceptive nature of rhetoric. Mr. Dozier.

Open to all classes.

Two 75-minute periods.

310b. Seminar in Ancient Art (1)

(Same as Art 310b) Ms. D'Ambra.

Not offered in 2011-12.

380b. Plays of Logos: Readings in Greek Poetry and Philosophy(1)

(Same as College Course 380b. and Philosophy 380b.) A cross-disciplinary study of Homer, Presocratics, Aeschylus, and Plato. Possible texts: Iliad, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Empedocles, Oresteia, Republic. Ms. Kitzinger and Mr. Miller.

381a. Urbanism in the Ancient Mediterranean World: Pompeii, Akrotiri, Constantinople (1)

Daily life in the ancient Mediterranean world revolved around urbanism, as cities defined and delineated the geographic and ideological landscapes of Greece and Rome. Incorporating contemporary urban and anthropological theories of the preindustrial city, this course draws on a multidisciplinary approach using archaeology, art, historiography, and literary and documentary evidence to investigate forms and expressions of urbanism in three highly disparate cities from the ancient world: Aegean Akrotiri, Roman Pompeii, and Late Antique Constantinople. Pompeii, richly documented through documentary, epigraphic, and archaeological evidence, occupies the course's theoretical and practical center as a type-site for exploring ancient urbanism and the mechanisms of daily life. The course then addresses two other important cities and the unique methodological challenges they pose for ancient urban studies: Akrotiri, the 2nd millennium BCE port on the island of Santorini (Thera) was preserved by a 17th century BCE volcanic eruption and is now accessible only through study of its archaeological remains, and the Late Antique (4th-7th century CE) city of Constantinople which can be recovered now primarily through literary and documentary sources. Topics include city planning, politics and social organization, public and domestic space, infrastructure, religious practices, and trade and economic production. (All readings in English.) Ms. Olsen

Not offered in 2011-12.

Courses in Greek Language and Literature

Courses numbered X20-X39 require appropriate reading ability in ancient Greek.

I. Introductory

125a. Elementary Greek (1)

Introduction to the language. Ms. Friedman.

Yearlong course 125-126.

Open to all classes.

Four 50-minute periods.

126. Elementary Greek (1)

Introduction to the language. Ms. Olsen.

Yearlong course 125-126.

Open to all classes.

Four 50-minute periods.

II. Intermediate

225a. Intermediate Greek (1)

Authors may include Sophokles, Euripides, Xenophon, Lysias, and Plato. In addition to consolidating knowledge of grammar, the selection of passages brings into focus important aspects of Athenian culture. Mr. Brown.

Prerequisite: Greek 105-106 or permission of the instructor.

226b. Topics in Greek Literature (1)

Topic for 2012/13b: The Spartan Mirage: Sparta and Spartans in Greek Literature. (Same as Greek and Roman Studies 321) Of the first-tier city-states of ancient Greece, Sparta occupies a unique position -- a state which prized above all its military achievements but eschewed many of the arts so eagerly pursued by its competitor cities such as Athens, namely grand public architecture, sculpture,and above all,literature. As a result, the Spartans are mainly known to us through the voices of other Geeks from whose various biases multiple versions of Sparta emerge. This course investigates the ways in which Sparta and its inhabitants are portrayed in the writings of Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Aristotle, and Plutarch, and concludes with a short survey of the two best attested Spartan poets, Alcman and Tyrtaeus. Since we are reading several authors, we are excerpting texts frequently; consequently, there are also substantial readings in English of both primary and secondary source materials. Ms. Olsen.

This course should be elected by students before electing any advanced Greek course in the department.

Prerequisite: Greek and Roman Studies 225 or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods and a 50-minute drill period.

III. Advanced

321b. Topics in Greek Literature (1)

Topic for 2012/13b: The Spartan Mirage: Sparta and Spartans in Greek Literature. (Same as Greek and Roman Studies 226) Of the first-tier city-states of ancient Greece, Sparta occupies a unique position -- a state which prized above all its military achievements but eschewed many of the arts so eagerly pursued by its competitor cities such as Athens, namely grand public architecture, sculpture,and above all,literature. As a result, the Spartans are mainly known to us through the voices of other Geeks from whose various biases multiple versions of Sparta emerge. This course investigates the ways in which Sparta and its inhabitants are portrayed in the writings of Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Aristotle, and Plutarch, and concludes with a short survey of the two best attested Spartan poets, Alcman and Tyrtaeus. Since we are reading several authors, we are excerpting texts frequently; consequently, there are also substantial readings in English of both primary and secondary source materials. Ms. Olsen.

Prerequisite: 2 units in 200 level courses in the language or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods and a 50-minute drill period.

322a. Greek Tragedy (1)

A reading of a play by Sophokles or Euripides. Careful study of the text helps us to understand the playwright's style. We also consider how the play examines and responds to the historical, social and political conditions of Athens in the fifth century BCE. Ms. Friedman.

Offered in alternate years.

Prerequisite: two units in 200-level courses in the language or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

323a. Homer (1)

Extensive selections from the Iliadthe Odyssey, and/or Homeric Hymns with attention given to oral theory, thematic structure, and social issues raised by the poems. Ms. Friedman.

Prerequisite: two units in 200-level courses in the language or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2012/13.

Courses in Latin Language and Literature

Courses numbered X40-X59 require appropriate reading ability in Latin.

I. Introductory

145a. Elementary Latin (1)

Introduction to the language. Mr. Brown.

Yearlong course 145-146.

Open to all classes.

Four 50-minute periods.

146b. Elementary Latin (1)

Introduction to the language. Mr. Brown.

Yearlong course 145-146.

Open to all classes.

Four 50-minute periods.

II. Intermediate

245a. Intermediate Latin (1)

Selected readings from authors such as Plautus, Cicero, Catullus, Caesar, Sallust, and Virgil. The selection of readings is designed to consolidate knowledge of grammar, provide an introduction to the translation of continuous, unadapted Latin, and highlight interesting features of Roman culture in the last two centuries of the Republic. Ms. Olsen.

Prerequisite: Greek and Roman Studies 145-146 or permission of the instructor or chair.

Two 75-minute periods.

246b. Intermediate Latin (1)

Authors may include Horace, Livy, Ovid, Seneca, Petronius, Suetonius, and Virgil. Readings are selected to illustrate the diversity of literary forms that flourished in the early Empire and the interaction of literature with society, politics, and private life. Mr. Lott.

Prerequisite: Greek and Roman Studies 245 or permission of the instructor.

III. Advanced

341b. Topics in Latin Literature (1)

Topic for 2012/13b: Livy vs. Hannibal. This course reads selections from the Augustan Historian Livy, focusing in particular on the Second Punic War and the invasion of Italy by the Carthaginian general Hannibal. We examine Livy's historical methods and literary style in order to understand how the Romans of Augustus' day understood and constructed their past, to question the place of religion, in particular, in the Roman conception of victory and defeat, and to illuminate social issues such as citizenship, the role of women in public life, and Roman attitudes towards Italians, Greeks, and other foreigners. Mr. Lott.

Prerequisites: two 200-level courses or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

342. Virgil (1)

Selections from the Eclogues, Georgics, or Aeneid. Subjects of study include the artistry of the Virgilian hexameter, the relationship of Virgil’s works to their Greek models, and general topics such as his conception of destiny, religion, and the human relation to nature. Mr. Brown

Offered every third year.

Prerequisite: Greek and Roman Studies 246 or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2012/13.

343. Tacitus (1)

Close readings from the works of the imperial historian and ethnographer Tacitus. In connection with further developing students' reading skills, the class focuses on particular literary, cultural, or historical issues. Mr. Lott.

Offered every third year.

Prerequisite: Greek and Roman Studies 246 or permission of the instructor.

Not offered in 2012/13.

344a. Roman Lyric and Elegy (1)

Poems of Horace, Tibullus, Propertius, Catullus and Ovid with attention given to poetic form, the influence of poets on each other, and the view they give us of Roman society in the first century BCE. Mr. Brown.

Prerequisite: Greek and Roman Studies 246 or permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

Independent Work

Independent work may be pursued in Greek, Latin, or English translation.

II. Intermediate

290. Field Work (1/2 or 1)

Special Permission

297. Readings Greek & Roman Studies (1/2)

298. Independent Study (1/2 or 1)

III. Advanced

360. a or b Senior Thesis (1)

One semester senior thesis. Seniors only

361a. Senior Thesis (1/2)

Full Year Thesis (1/2 unit per semester). Seniors Only.

362b. Senior Thesis (1/2)

Full Year Thesis (1/2 unit per semester). Seniors Only.

363. a or b Senior Project (1/2)

Extended writing or other project elected concurrently with a seminar in Greek and Roman Studies. Seniors only.

Prerequisite: permission of the instructor of the concurrent seminar.

399. Senior Independent Study (1/2 or 1)