Education Department

Associate Professors: Joyce Bickerstaff, Christopher Roellke (Chair); Assistant Professors: Christopher Bjork (Coordinator of Childhood Education), Joy Leiab; Visiting Instructor: Linda Cantor (Coordinator of Adolescent Education); Adjunct Instructor: Carmen Garcia; Lecturer: Julie Riess (Director of Wimpfheimer Nursery School).

ab Absent on leave for the year.

The teacher preparation programs in the Department of Education at Vassar College reflect the philosophy that a broad liberal arts education is the best foundation for teaching whether on the childhood or adolescent level; whether in public or private schools. The student at Vassar who is preparing to teach works within a strong interdisciplinary framework of professional methods and a balanced course of study in a select field of concentration leading to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The department offers work leading to initial New York State certification at the childhood and adolescent school levels. This certification is reciprocal in many other states.

Consistent with New York State requirements, the certification programs are based upon demonstration of competency in both academic and field settings. It is advisable that students planning childhood or adolescent certification consult with the department during the first semester of the freshman year.

Transfer Students: Transfer students who wish to be certified for childhood or adolescent school teaching under the Vassar program must take their units in professional preparation at Vassar. They are also required to do their student teaching under Vassar’s supervision. Early consultation with the Department of Education is advised.

Students interested in the theoretical or cross-cultural study of education, but not in certification, should consult the department for a list of recommended courses.

Special Programs:

Clifden, Ireland: Internship in Irish Primary and Secondary Schools. Vassar College, in cooperation with University College, Galway, and the schools of Clifden, offers a one-semester internship in Irish schools. Students interested in teacher certification, the theoretical study of education, or the study of cross-cultural education are assigned as interns in the secondary schools in Clifden. They are expected also to take a “half-tutorial’’ of study at University College, Galway, in some area such as history, English, psychology, history of art, physical sciences, geography, or other subjects taught in the university. Those interested in applying should consult with their adviser and the Department of Education before making formal application through the Department of Education.

Exploring Science at Vassar Farm. The Department of Education offers a one-semester program in science and environmental education at the Collins Field Station on the Vassar Farm property. Vassar students work with faculty to design and implement lessons for local Poughkeepsie elementary students. Children from second and third grade classrooms are invited to spend a morning at the Farm in exploration and discovery. Through nature walks, performing a simple experiment, observing live animals, and using large motor skills in play, children are actively engaged in science. Those interested in participating should contact Ms. Capozzoli, director of the program.

Venture/Bank Street:

Urban (NYC) Education Semester. Vassar College, in cooperation with Venture/Bank Street, offers a one-semester program in urban education. Students interested in teacher certification, the theoretical study of education, or the study of cross-cultural education are assigned as interns in New York City public schools. In addition to the two-unit internship, students also take three additional courses at Bank Street College. Those interested in applying should consult with their advisor and the Department of Education before making formal application through the Office of the Dean of Studies.

Childhood Education Certification: A program leading to the New York State Initial Childhood Education Certificate (1-6) is offered. New York State certifies students for the initial certificate upon recommendation of the teacher certification officer. Such recommendation depends on academic excellence, specified competencies in professional course work, field experiences, and demonstrated fitness for teaching. In addition, students must pass qualifying examinations set by New York State. The program of study must include the following requirements: Psychology 105, 231; Education 235, 250, 290, 240, 350/351, 360, 361, 362.

Advisers: The department.

Recommended Sequence of Courses for Childhood Education Certification:

Freshman year:
Psychology 105, 231
Education 290 (Field Work)
Sophomore year:
Education 235
Education 250
Junior year:
Education 350/351
Education 240
Senior year:
Education 360, 361
Education 362 (Student Teaching)

NRO work may not be used to satisfy state certification requirements.

The student teaching internship is a five-day/week full time classroom experience in selected local schools during the a-semester.

Adolescent Education Certification: Programs leading to the New York State Initial Adolescent Education Certificate (7-12) are offered in the fields of English, foreign languages (Spanish, French, German, Russian), mathematics, biology, chemistry, physics, and social studies. Students with a major in the areas of anthropology, economics, geography, history, political science, urban studies, American culture, and sociology are eligible for social studies certification. New York State certifies students upon the recommendation of the teacher certification officer. Such recommendation depends on academic excellence, specified competencies in professional course work, field experiences, and demonstrated fitness for teaching. In addition, students must pass qualifying examinations set by New York State. The program of study must include the following:

Psychology 105; Education 235, 250, 263, 290, 380, plus one additional course in adolescent literacy determined in consultation with the department.

English: Education 394, 374

Foreign Languages: Education 390, 370

Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry, Physics: Education 392, 372

Social Studies: Education 396, 376

In addition to completing requirements for their major, students may need additional coursework in the subject area in which they plan to teach. These vary slightly for each field; therefore it is important that students planning such a program consult with the appropriate member of the department as soon as the area of concentration has been declared.

Advisers: The department.

Recommended Sequence of Courses for Adolescent Education Certification:

Freshman year:
Education 235
Psychology 105
Sophomore year:
*Education 250
*Education 263
*Education 290
Junior year:
Education 290
Education 380
Senior year:
*Education 370-376
Education 390-396

* Recommended, not required.

NRO work may not be used to satisfy state certification requirements.

The student teaching internship is a five-day/week full time classroom experience in selected local schools during the a-semester.

I. Introductory

160a and b. Books, Children, and Culture (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 160) This course examines select classical works from the oral tradition and contemporary works of children’s fiction and non-fiction. The course addresses juvenile literature as a sociological phenomenon as well as a literary and artistic one (illustrative content). The course traces the socio-historical development of American children’s literature from Western and non-Western societies. Social, psychoanalytic, and educational theory provide a conceptual basis and methodological framework for the cultural analysis of fairy tale and modern fantasy in cross-cultural perspective. Socialization issues include: ideals of democracy; moral character; race and class; politicalization; and the human relationship to the natural environment. Ms. Bickerstaff.

Two 75-minute periods.

166a-167b. American Sign Language I and II (1)

This total immersion course strongly adheres to the philosophy that language acquisition is best achieved when total language is taught by means of hands-on group activities that reflect common everyday interactions of people in the Deaf Community rather than through isolated vocabulary. Sessions introduce both formal and informal registers in American Sign Language. Meaningful and experiential group activities adhere to research findings detailing the importance of incorporating facial grammar, mouth morphemes, and non-manual signals, prosody, and body language in the beginning stages of learning the grammar as visual language. Role-playing serves a vital tool in helping students formulate grammatically correct ideas and concepts from concrete to abstract. The primary focus is to develop receptive skills. Deaf culture is highlighted throughout the course to enrich and complement the study of the language. In American Sign Language II, students continue to engage in meaningful and experiential group activities to enhance their fluency. Focus is on further development of essential receptive skills while guiding the student to effective expressive skills through instructor modeling, and modeling of Deaf individuals from the community and well known videotaped models in the profession. Ms. Garcia.

Completion of Education 166a-167b satisfies the foreign language requirement.

Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

Two 75-minute periods; one hour of laboratory.

II. Intermediate

235a or b. Issues in Contemporary Education (1)

This course introduces you to debates about the nature and purposes of U.S. education. Examination of these debates help us develop a deeper and more critical understanding of U.S. schools and the individuals who teach and learn within them. Focusing on current issues in education, we consider the multiple and competing purposes of schooling and the complex ways in which formal and informal education play a part in shaping students as academic and social beings. We also examine issues of power and control at various levels of the U.S. education system. Among the questions we contemplate are: Whose interests should schools serve? What material and values should be taught? How should schools be organized and operated? The department.

Prerequisite: Psychology 105.

Two 75-minute periods.

237b. Early Childhood Education: Theory and Practice (1)

(Same as Psychology 237b) What is the connection between a textbook description of preschool development and what teachers do every day in the preschool classroom? This course examines curriculum development based on contemporary theory and research in early childhood. The emphasis is on implementing developmental and educational research to create optimal learning environments for young children. Major theories of cognitive development are considered and specific attention is given to the literatures on memory development; concepts and categories; cognitive strategies; peer teaching; early reading, math, and scientific literacy; and technology in early childhood classrooms. Ms. Riess.

Prerequisite: Psychology 231 and permission of instructor

One 2-hour period; 4 hours of laboratory participation

240b. Mathematics for Elementary Teaching: Content and Methodology for Regular and Special Education (1)

The purpose of this course is to develop the student’s competency to teach mathematics to elementary school children, K-6. Lectures and “hands on’’ activity sessions are used to explore mathematical content, methodology, and resource materials with an emphasis on conceptual understanding as it relates to the sequential nature of mathematics and to cognitive development. Special emphasis is placed on diagnostic and remedial skills drawn from a broad psychological and theoretical base. Students have the opportunity to plan, implement, and assess their mathematics teaching in appropriate classroom settings through field -assignments in the local schools. Ms. Cantor.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105, 231. Special permission.

250a or b. Introduction to Special Education (1)

The purpose of this course is to examine new ideas that have emerged with regard to the education and training of exceptional children. A humanistic philosophical approach is the emphasis of this examination with focus on the child rather than on the categories of handicaps. Considering “special education’’ as intervention in the education of children who have special needs, several issues are dealt with: the medical, psychological, and sociological problems of these children; instructional practices; inclusion; and the restructuring of the traditional role of the special teacher. Instructor to be announced.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105, 231. Special permission.

Two 75-minute periods.

[252b. Race, Representation, and Resistance in U.S. Schools] (1)

(Same as Urban Studies 252) This course examines the political and relational constructions of race and their significance in schooling. The examination includes the complicated relationship between identities at the individual level and the representations and discourses of knowledge created by the dominant racialized order at structural and ideological levels. Set within the context of schools, this analysis delves into the meanings of race in the everyday lives of students and teachers and in education policies, practices, and reform. Ms. Lei.

Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

Not offered in 2006/07.

262a. The Fairy Tale (1)

The course focuses on European and Asian folk tales, with emphasis on how writers from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have reinvented the fairy tale while borrowing from traditional sources. Readings may include: Household Tales of the Brothers Grimm, and selections from Hans Christian Andersen, George MacDonald, Lewis Carroll, L. Frank Baum, and Virginia Hamilton. Assignments include critical papers, the writing of an original tale, and the presentation of a traditional tale in class. Ms. Darlington.

Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

263a. The Adolescent in American Society (1)

This course examines the lives of American adolescents and the different ways our society has sought to understand, respond to, and shape them. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between educational policies/practices and adolescent growth and development. Empirical studies will be combined with practical case scenarios as a basis for understanding alternative pathways for meeting the needs of middle school and high school learners. This course is required for secondary school teacher certification. Mr. Roellke.

Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

One 3-hour period.

266a. American Sign Language III (1)

Students further develop their receptive and expressive skills while progressing to narrative skills through the use of storytelling that helps them incorporate classifiers, mouth morphemes and prosody to their production. Videotaped student assignments continue to be utilized as an essential tool for self and group assessment and continued growth. Ms. Garcia.

Prerequisite: Education 166a-167b.

Two 75-minute periods; one hour of laboratory.

267b. American Sign Language IV (1)

In this course, focus is on the continued development of fluency through experiential group activities and videotaped assignments. “Success stories jokes, history and humor presented by Deaf Community members are studied to enhance further understanding of Deaf culture and values. Students explore how their knowledge and skills of ASL, Deaf culture, values and norms can serve as a valuable tool for effective interaction with Deaf individuals. Ms. Garcia.

Prerequisite: Education 166a-167b and 266a.

Two 75-minute periods; one hour of laboratory.

[271. From Print to Film: The Reading, Writing, and Seeing of Children’s Books] (1)

A study of selected children’s classics and the films based on them, both of which have attracted an adult audience: Alice in Wonderland, Through the Looking Glass, Gulliver’s Travels, Mulan, The Wizard of Oz and others. Ms. Willard.

Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

Two 2-hour periods.

Not offered in 2006/07.

272b. Comparative Education (1)

(Same as Asian Studies 272b) This course provides an overview of comparative education theory, practice, and research methodology. We examine educational issues and systems in a variety of cultural contexts. Particular attention is paid to educational practices in Asia and Europe, as compared to the United States. The emphasis of the course focuses on educational concerns that transcend national boundaries. Among the topics explored are international development, democratization, social stratification, the cultural transmission of knowledge, and the place of education in the global economy. These issues are examined from multiple disciplinary vantage points. Mr. Bjork.

Prerequisite: Education 235 or permission of instructor.

Two 75-minute periods.

290a or b. Field Work ( 1/2 or 1)

All candidates for certification must demonstrate competency in an intensive field work experience at the elementary, middle school, or senior high school level prior to student teaching. The department.

297a or b. Independent Reading ( 1/2)

Student initiated independent reading projects with Education faculty. A variety of topics are possible, including educational policy, children’s literature, early childhood education, the adolescent, history of American education, multicultural education, and comparative education. Subject to prior approval of the department. The department.

298a or b. Independent Study ( 1/2 or 1)

Individual or group projects concerned with some aspect of education, subject to prior approval of the department. May be elected during the regular academic year or during the summer. The department.

III. Advanced

A minimum of 1/2 unit of field work is required for admittance to all 300-level courses for students seeking teacher certification.

300a. Senior Portfolio: Childhood Education (1)

This senior seminar focuses on analysis of the student teaching experience. Through the development of their teaching portfolio, senior students examine the linkages between theory, current research, and classroom practice. This course should be taken concurrently with the student teaching practicum. Mr. Bjork.

301a. Senior Portfolio: Adolescent Education (1)

Same as Education 300a, but for students earning certification in Adolescent Education. Ms. Cantor.

[320b. Up From Slavery: Schooling and Socialization] of Blacks in America (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 320) Ms. Bickerstaff.

Not offered in 2006/07.

321a. Cross-Cultural Studies in Education (1)

(Same as Africana Studies 321)

336a. Childhood Development: Observation and Research Application (1)

(Same as Psychology 336) What differentiates the behavior of one young child from that of another? What characteristics do young children have in common? This course provides students with direct experience in applying contemporary theory and research to the understanding of an individual child. Topics include attachment; temperament; parent, sibling and peer relationships; language and humor development; perspective-taking; and the social-emotional connection to learning. Each student selects an individual child in a classroom setting and collects data about the child from multiple sources (direct observation, teacher interviews, parent-teacher conferences, archival records). During class periods, students discuss the primary topic literature, incorporating and comparing observations across children to understand broader developmental trends and individual differences. Synthesis of this information with critical analysis of primary sources in the early childhood and developmental literature culminates in comprehensive written and oral presentations. Ms. Riess.

Prerequisite: Psychology 231 and permission of the instructor.

For Psychology Majors: completion of a research methods course.

One 3-hour period.

4 hours of laboratory observation work.

350/351. The Teaching of Reading: Process and Strategies for Childhood and Special Education (1)

The purpose of this course is to examine the nature and process of reading within a theoretical framework and then to examine a variety of approaches and strategies used in teaching children to read and to gain competence in all of the language arts. Special emphasis is placed on diagnostic teaching for all children as well as on the selection of reading curricula, goals, methods, materials, and settings appropriate for children in regular classes and for children with cognitive and behavioral deficits for whom modifications in the learning program are necessary. Observation and participation in local schools is required. Instructor to be announced.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105, 231, permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period; one hour of laboratory.

[353a. Pedagogies of Difference: Critical Approaches to Education] (1)]

The idea of difference has served as the conceptual groundwork for educational theorists of diverse ideological perspectives to work toward actualizing equitable teaching and learning contexts for all individuals and groups within a society or culture. Yet in their desire for securing equitable educational environments and opportunities, different approaches such as multicultural education, feminist pedagogy, critical pedagogy, antiracist education, postcolonial pedagogy, and queer pedagogy diverge with respect to the concept of difference, placing more and less emphasis on particular sociocultural categories (i.e., race, gender, class, sexuality, language, dis/ability). Given these discrepancies, to what extent can the idea of difference help us to redefine or rethink the principle of educational equity and the questions of social justice that it raises both within and outside of the classroom? In this course, we examine the historical and philosophical roots of critical approaches to education as well as diverse theoretical paradigms about teaching, learning and school reform that situate schooling in a larger political and global context. We utilize these theoretical paradigms to analyze educational policies, curriculum, and pedagogical practices that address the relationship between schooling and society in global times. Ms. Lei.

Prerequisite: Education 235 or Education 252, or permission of instructor.

Not offered in 2006/07.

360a. Workshop in Curriculum Development (1)

This course focuses on the current trends, research and theory in the area of social science and their implications for practice in the elementary schools. Procedures and criteria for developing and evaluating curricular content, resources and teaching strategies are examined and interdisciplinary units developed. Mr. Bjork.

Prerequisites: open to seniors only or by permission of instructor.

One 3-hour period.

361b. Seminar: Science in the Elementary Curriculum (1)

This course focuses on methods of teaching science in the elementary school. Students explore the development of scientific concepts, science literacy, and scientific methods as appropriate for elementary school students. Emphasis is placed on experiential approaches to the material. Mr. Bjork.

Permission of instructor.

One 3-hour period.

362a. Student Teaching Practicum: Childhood Education (2)

Supervised internship in an elementary classroom, grades 1-6. Examination and analysis of the interrelationships of teachers, children, and curriculum as reflected in the classroom learning environment. One or more conference hours per week. Mr. Bjork.

Open to seniors only.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105, 231; Education 235, 240, 250, 290, 350/351; Education 360, 361 may be concurrent. (Ungraded only.) Permission of instructor.

367b. Urban Education Reform (1)

(Same as Urban Studies 367b) This seminar examines American urban education reform from historical and contemporary perspectives. Particular attention is given to the political and economic aspects of educational change. Specific issues addressed in the course include school governance, standards and accountability, incentive-based reform strategies, and investments in teacher quality. Instructor to be announced.

Prerequisite: Education 235 or permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

370a. Student Teaching: Secondary School Foreign Languages (2)

Supervised internship in teaching in a middle, junior or senior high school, grades 7-12. Examination of the interrelationships of teachers, children, and curriculum as reflected in the classroom learning environment. One or more conference periods per week. The department.

Open to seniors only.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105; Education 235, 263, 290, 380; Education 390. (Ungraded only.) Permission of instructor.

372a. Student Teaching: Secondary School Mathematics and Science (2)

Supervised internship in teaching in a middle, junior, or senior high school, grades 7-12. Examination of the interrelationships of teachers, children, and curriculum as reflected in the classroom learning environment. One or more conference hours per week. The department.

Open to seniors only.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105; Education 235, 263, 290, 380; Education 392. (Ungraded only.) Permission of instructor.

374a. Student Teaching: Secondary School English (2)

Supervised internship in teaching in a middle, junior, or senior high school, grades 7-12. Examination of the interrelationships of teachers, children, and curriculum as reflected in the classroom learning environment. One or more conference periods per week. The department.

Open to seniors only.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105; Education 235, 263, 290, 380; Education 394. (Ungraded only.) Permission of instructor.

376a. Student Teaching: Secondary School Social Studies (2)

Supervised internship in teaching in a middle, junior or senior high school, grades 7-12. Examination of the interrelationships of teachers, children, and curriculum as reflected in the classroom learning environment. One or more conference hours per week. The department.

Open to seniors only.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105; Education 235, 263, 290, 380; Education 396. (Ungraded only.) Permission of instructor.

380b. Adolescent Literacy (1)

This course examines the development of adolescent literacy within the various content fields. Special focus is placed upon understanding the literacy process, identifying and modifying materials to support adolescent literacy development, and selecting curricular strategies that meet the needs of diverse learners. Instructor to be announced.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105; Education 235, 263. Permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

390b. Secondary School Teaching: Methods in Foreign Languages (1)

A seminar in the methods of teaching and development of curriculum in foreign languages in the secondary school. Special emphasis is placed on the relation of effective learning to motivation, to adolescent development, and to individual needs. Discussion of currently evolving theories of instruction in the secondary schools. The department.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105; Education 235, 263, 290, 380. permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

392b. Secondary School Teaching: Methods in Mathematics and Science (1)

Seminar in the methods and materials used in a secondary school science and mathematics program. Examination of current trends in application of learning theories related to those subject areas. Emphasis placed on expanding of student view of educational problem solving by exploration of instructional alternatives. The department.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105; Education 235, 263, 290, 380. Permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

394b. Secondary School Teaching: Methods in English (1)

A seminar in the methods of teaching and development of curriculum in English in the secondary school. Special emphasis is placed on curriculum development, assessment, and meeting the needs of diverse learners. Attention is given to the relationship of effective learning to adolescent development and motivation. The department.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105; Education 235, 263, 290, 380. permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

396b. Secondary School Teaching: Methods in the Social Studies (1)

Seminar in the methods and materials of secondary school social studies teaching. Special emphasis will be placed on curriculum development. Specific attention given to the selection of materials and the exploration of innovative teaching techniques. The department.

Prerequisites: Psychology 105; Education 235, 263, 290, 380. permission of instructor.

One 2-hour period.

399a or b. Senior Independent Work ( 1/2 or 1)

Special permission. The department.