Cognitive Science Program

Director: Gwen J. Broude (Psychology); Faculty Members: Janet K. Andrews (Psychology), Carol Christensen (Psychology), Jennifer Church (Philosophy), Thomas Ellman (Computer Science), Luke Hunsberger (Computer Science), Kenneth R. Livingston (Psychology), John H. Long, Jr. (Biology);Participating Faculty: Herman Cappelen (Philosophy), Mark Cleaveland (Psychology), Randolph Cornelius (Psychology), Jeffrey Cynx (Psychology), John Feroe (Mathematics), Kevin Holloway (Psychology), Nancy Ide (Computer Science), Jannay Morrow (Psychology), Carolyn Palmer (Psychology), Thomas Porcello (Anthropology), Kathleen M. Susman (Biology).

We human beings take it for granted that we are possessed of minds. You know that you have a mind and you assume that other people do too. But what, exactly, are we referring to when we talk about the mind? Is a mind just a brain? What endows your mind with the property of being conscious? How does your mind allow you to extract music from sound waves, or relish the taste of chocolate, or daydream, or feel happy and sad, or reach for my cup when you want a sip of coffee? Are minds directly aware of the world out there? Or, when you think that you are perceiving reality, are you just consulting some representation of the world that your mind has built? How similar is your mind to the minds of other people? Do you have to be a human being to have a mind? Could other entities have minds so long as they were built the right way? Does your computer have a mind? These are the kinds of question that are if interest to cognitive scientists.

These are the kinds of questions that cognitive scientists want to address. Cognitive Science is a broadly multidisciplinary field in which philosophers, psychologists, anthropologists,. linguists, neuroscientists, biologists, mathematicians, and computer scientists, among others, combine their respective theories, technologies, and methodologies in the service of a unified exploration of mind. The hallmark of the field is a genuinely multidisciplinary outlook in which the perspectives and methods of all of the component disciplines are simultaneously brought to bear upon a particular question. In 1982, Vassar College became the first institution in the world to grant an undergraduate degree in Cognitive Science.

The key elements of the Cognitive Science major are (1) a sustained, broad, in-depth exploration of mental phenomena via the multidisciplinary strategy of the field, (2) application of the Cognitive Science strategy to a specific domain of interest to the student, and (3) completion during the senior year of an independent research project on a topic chosen by the student.

The first of these goals is met by completion of the Core Courses, All. majors are required to complete all of these courses:

Cognitive Science 100 Introduction to Cognitive Science (1)

Cognitive Science 211 Perception and Action (1)

Cognitive Science 213 Language (1)

Cognitive Science 215 Knowledge and Cognition (1)

Psychology 200 Statistics and Experimental Design (1)

Cognitive Science 219 Research Methods in Cognitive Science (1)

Cognitive Science 311 Seminar in Cognitive Science (1)

The second goal of the major is met by choosing one of the paths listed below and electing four elective courses from the chosen path. Courses under each path are listed on the Cognitive Science Website and are also available in the Cognitive Science office New England 202, and by request from any faculty member of the Program. The following stipulations apply to path electives: (1) The choice of path and electives within the path are to be made in consultation with the adviser at the time of declaration of the major. (2) At least one of the four electives must be a 300-level seminar. This can include a second Cognitive Science seminar if it is relevant to the path. (3) No more than one of the electives can be a 100-level course. The exception is the Computer Science 101-102 sequence. A student who takes this sequence can have both courses count toward the major. A student may petition his or her advisor to develop a customized path and will be allowed to do so under the direction of the advisor if the rationale is deemed justified. Independent work in Cognitive Science, for instance the annual Robot Competition, can count toward the major with the approval of the Program.

Cognitive Science Electives Paths

The final goal of the major is met by completing a thesis in the senior year. The topic of the thesis is chosen by the student in consultation with one or more members of the program faculty. All majors must sign up for the thesis in the senior year. Students are strongly encouraged to sign up for Cognitive Science 300-301 for 1/2 credit in the a-semester and 1/2 credit in the b-semester, for a total of 1 unit of credit. In cases where this is not possible it is acceptable to sign up for Cognitive Science 302 for a full unit in either the a- or the b-term. Students should consult their adviser before electing the latter option.

After declaration of the major, all courses within the major must be taken for letter grades. Students may elect a graded or ungraded option for theses, but may not change the election once made.

100a and b. Introduction to Cognitive Science (1)

This course serves as an introduction to the multidisciplinary field of cognitive science. The course provides the historical context of the emergence of cognitive science, tracing developments in modern philosophy and linguistics, and the rise of cognitivism and neuroscience in psychology and of artificial intelligence in computer science. The basic substantive issues of cognitive science discussed in-clude the mind-body problem, thought as computation and the computer model of mind, the role of representation in mental activity, and the explanation of mental activity via categories such as language, memory, perception, reasoning, and consciousness. The discussions of these issues illustrate the distinctive methodology of cognitive science, which integrates elements of the methodological approaches of several disciplines. The program faculty.

211a. Perception and Action (1)

(Same as Psychology 211) This course is about how systems for perceiving the world come to be coordinated with systems for acting in that world. Topics include how physical energies become perceptual experiences, systems for producing complex actions, and how it is that actions are brought under the control of perceptions. Relevant evidence is drawn from behavioral and neuroscientific studies of other species and from human infants and children, as well as from human adults. Computer models of these processes and the problem of replicating them in robots are considered. Classes include regular laboratory work.

Prerequisite: Cognitive Science 100.

213a. Language (1)

(Same as Psychology 213) This course considers the rich and complex phenomenon of human language from a multidisciplinary perspective. The emphasis is on the cognitive representations and processes that enable individual language users to acquire, perceive, comprehend, produce, read, and write language. Consideration is given to the relation of language to thought and consciousness; to neural substrates of language and the effects of brain damage on language ability; to computational models of language; and to language development. Throughout, language is examined at different levels of analysis, including sound, structure, and meaning.

Prerequisite: Cognitive Science 100.

215b. Knowledge and Cognition (1)

(Same as Psychology 215) This course asks how knowledge and cognition contribute to the functioning of biological and synthetic cognitive agents. Along the way it inquires into the origins and nature of knowledge, memory, concepts, goals, and problem-solving strategies. Relevant philosophical issues are examined along with research on the brain, experimental evidence from cognitive psychology, computer models, and evolutionary explanations of mind and behavior. A major goal of the course is to explore how cognitive scientists are coming to understand knowledge and cognition within an embodied agent embedded in a real world. The program faculty.

Prerequisite: Cognitive Science 100.

219b. Research Methods in Cognitive Science (1)

(Same as Psychology 219b) In this course, students learn to apply the principal methodologies of cognitive science to a specific problem in the field, such as sentence processing or visual form perception. The methods are drawn from human neurophysiology, experimental cognitive psychology, computer modelling, linguistic and logical analysis, and other appropriate investigative tools, depending on the specific issue chosen for study. A major goal of the course is to give students hands-on experience with the use and coordination of research techniques and strategies characteristic of contemporary cognitive science. The program faculty.

Prerequisites: Psychology 200, and either Cognitive Science 211, 213, 215, or Psychology 241.

290a and b. Field Work (1⁄2 or 1)

298a and b. Independent Work (1⁄2 or 1)

300-301. Senior Thesis (1)

A thesis written in two semesters for 1 unit.

302a and b. Senior Thesis (1)

A thesis written in one semester for 1 unit.

311b. Seminar in Cognitive Science (1)

The topic of the seminar varies regularly, but is always focused on some aspect of thought, language, perception, or action considered from the unique, synthetic perspective of cognitive science. The seminar is team-taught by faculty members in the program. May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.

Topic for 2005/06: The Quest for AI. In the late 70’s it looked like we were on the brink of creating true artificial intelligence, or AI, but now, 25 years later, the effort seems to have fallen short of the promises and predictions of its major proponents. This course examines why these predictions have been so far off the mark, and the implications of the shortfall for the key theoretical projects of cognitive science. A major focus of the course is on the question of what is missing from the AI effort, with an examination of a range of proposed answers (emotion, fuzzy reasoning, quantum logic, genetic algorithms, etc.). Readings are drawn from philosophy, comparative animal studies, developmental psychology, anthropology, and computer science, and supplemented by literature and film from the science fiction genre. Mr. Connell, Mr. Livingston.

Prerequisite: One intermediate level cognitive science course and permission of the instructors.

One 3-hour period.

399a and b. Senior Independent Work (1⁄2 or 1)