French Department

Professors: Elisabeth Cardonne-Arlyck, Cynthia B. Kerrb, Christine Reno; Associate Professors: Mark Andrewsb, Patricia-Pia Célérier (Chair), Kathleen HartaAssistant Professor: Susan Hiner; Visiting Assistant Professor: Mansouria Geist.

a Absent on leave, first semester.

b Absent on leave, second semester.

All courses are conducted in French except French 189 and 248.

Requirements for Concentration: 11 units excluding French 248, and including at least 3 units at the 300-level. No courses in French elected after the declaration of the major may be taken NRO.

Teaching Certification: Students who wish to obtain Secondary Certification must complete the program of study outlined by the education department.

Advisers: The department.

Study Abroad: Vassar College and Wesleyan University sponsor jointly a program of study in Paris. Majors in French are expected to participate in this program for one or two semesters during their junior year. Students electing a correlate sequence in French are also encouraged to participate in the program. Students concentrating in other fields for whom study in Paris is advisable are accepted, within the regulations of their respective departments and the Office of the Dean of Studies. Courses offered in the Paris program are included below. Students of French who are unable to study abroad during the academic year are strongly encouraged to attend the summer program at Middlebury College French School, or other summer programs in France or French-speaking countries.

Correlate Sequence in French: Students majoring in other programs may complement their study by electing a correlate sequence in French. Course selection should be made in consultation with the chair or other advisers in the department.

Requirements: 6 units excluding French 248, at least 5 of which must be taken above the 100-level. At least 1 but preferably 2 units must be taken at the 300-level. No French courses elected after declaration of the correlate sequence may be taken NRO.

Study Away and summer courses may be substituted in the correlate sequence, with departmental approval.

I. Introductory

105a-106b. Elementary French (1)

Fundamentals of the language. Students learn to understand spoken French, to express simple ideas both orally and in writing, and to read French of average difficulty. The department.

Not open to students who have previously studied French.

Three 50-minute class periods, 2 hours of drill and oral practice.

189a. Writing Modern Life (1)

Inspired by the rapidly changing urban space of mid-nineteenth-century Paris, French poet Charles Baudelaire defined “modernité” as “the ephemeral, the fugitive, the contingent, the half of art whose other half is the eternal, the immutable.” French concepts of the modern engage a broad range of themes, from social and political change, industrialization, commercialization and urbanization to the status of women and challenges to aesthetic forms. This course considers the French “tradition” of modernity through readings of literary texts in their historical, social and artistic contexts. Specifically we explore the French concept of the modern through readings of four classic novels of nineteenth­ century France: Stendhal’s The Red and the Black, Balzac’s Père Goriot, Flaubert’s Madame Bovary, and Zola’s The Ladies’ Paradise. Works by Baudelaire complement our readings of these novels as we examine the writing of modern life and explore the figure of the modern hero or heroine, who is characterized by his or her negotiations of the spaces (both literal and figurative) of modernity. Ms. Hiner.

Open only to freshmen.

II. Intermediate

205a and b. Intermediate French I (1)

Fast-paced review of the main points of basic grammar. Includes practice in speaking, listening, reading, and writing, through written exercises, short texts and compositions, and work with the audiovisual resources of the language laboratory. The department.

Prerequisite: French 105-106 or two years of French in high school.

Three 50-minute or two 75-minute periods; one hour of scheduled oral practice.

206a and b. Intermediate French II (1)

Expanded grammar study with an emphasis on more complex linguistic structures such as relative pronouns and the subjunctive. Reading, writing, and speaking skills are developed through discussion of cultural and literary texts and use of audiovisual material. The course prepares students linguistically for cultural and literary study at the intermediate level. The department.

Prerequisite: French 205 or three years of French in high school. French 105-106 by permission of instructor.

Three 50-minute or two 75-minute periods; one hour of scheduled oral practice.

212a and b. Reading French Literature and Film (1)

Introduction to the analysis of literature and film and to basic modes of interpretation through the study and discussion of short texts (poems, short stories, films, plays, essays). The department.

Prerequisite: French 206 or four years of French in high school.

213a and b. France Through Her Media (1)

An introductory study of France through current newspapers, magazines, television programs, films and the web. A strong emphasis is placed on the expansion of vocabulary and on oral and written expression. Some grammar review. The department.

Prerequisite: French 206 or four years of French in high school.

[228. Tellers and Tales] (1)

Study of short stories taken from several periods of French literature. Introduction to the study of narrative forms and critical writing.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

Not offered in 2004/05.

[230. Medieval and Early Modern Times] (1)

Studies in French literature, history, and culture from the Medieval to the Classical period.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

Not offered in 2004/05.

[231. Revolutionary France and Its Legacies] (1)

Studies in French literature, history, and culture in relation to the French Revolution during the Enlightenment and the Romantic period.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

Not offered in 2004/05.

232b. The Modern Age (1)

The course explores literary, artistic, social, or political manifestations of modern French society and its relation to the French-speaking world from the Napoleonic Empire to the present.

Topic for 2004-2005: Music and Text in the Modern Age. There is music in language, and language in music. How does language “sing,” and what does music “say?” If music performs a “socially prescribed task,” as musicologist Richard Middleton proposes, then what do various combinations of music and language convey about specific moments in French history? From Bizet’s famous opera Carmen, inspired by Mérimée’s nineteenth-century novella, to contemporary rap and raï, we explore the psychology and sociology of music as text, and of text as music. Readings include song lyrics, poetry by Charles Baudelaire and Paul Verlaine, a play by Marguerite Duras, and short works by Prosper Mérimée, Louise Michel, Gérard de Nerval, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Germaine de Staël. Ms. Hart.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

235b. Contemporary France (1)

This course offers a study of French society as it has been shaped by the major historical and cultural events since WWII. The main themes include Vichy France, de Gaulle’s regime, the wars of French decolonization, the Mitterrand years, immigration, and the religious issues facing France today. The course draws on a variety of texts and documents including articles from the press and movies. Ms. Geist.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

240a. Study of French Grammar (1)

In-depth study of major aspects of French grammar. Grammar exercises, compositions, and oral practice. Ms. Cardonne-Arlyck.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

241b. Composition and Conversation (1)

A course designed to improve written and oral expression, through the study and practice of various forms of writing, and the discussion of readings on contemporary issues. The department.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

242. Studies in Genre I (1)

Study of narrative and prose forms including the novel, autobiography, and the essay.

Topic for 2004-2005: Chance Encounters. The novel displays an enduring fascination with mysterious and unpredictable energies that supervene in human affairs. Chance, in its various manifestations as accident, adversity, luck, lottery, risk, or revelation, invites the prospect of serendipitous outcomes, while raising the twin specters of ruin and chaos. The representation of chance events, elements, and encounters presents a particular challenge and opportunity for narrative. To what extent can writing venture a mimetic, and potentially catastrophic, enactment of the volatility it unleashes? In the course we consider ways in which the modern novel mediates and exploits the arrival of fortuitous circumstances as an avenue to explore the cultural complexities and personal predicaments that beset the individual in everyday life. Authors may include Annie Ernaux, Philippe Delerm, Marie Ndiaye, Paul Auster, Emmanuelle Bernheim, Patrick Modiano, Marie Darrieussecq. Mr. Andrews.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

243a. Studies in Genre II (1)

Study of dramatic and lyric forms including theater, poetry, and song.

Topic for 2004/05: The Comic Mask: Molière and His Legacy. What makes people laugh and why do they laugh? This course on the art and history of French comedy explores the nature of laughter as well as its social and moral implications. Beginning with Molière as model playwright, actor, and director, we go on to study Marivaux, Beaumarchais, Jarry, Romains, Beckett, and Ionesco. We discuss the psychological and philosophical underpinnings of laughter as observed by Aristotle, Baudelaire, Bergson, and Freud. We examine multiple comic forms such as farce, satire, vaudeville, improv, and stand-up comedy. Each work is analyzed in its socio-political context and studied from the perspective of modern criticism and contemporary theatrical production. Emphasis is placed on oral participation. Ms. Kerr.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

244a. French National Cinema (1)

Since WWI, French cinema has defined itself as national: not only as an industry requiring protection, but as a cultural institution bearing French identity. Through the study of individual films ranging from the silent era to the present, we examine the interaction between the French and their cinema in terms of historical circumstances, economic constraints, aesthetic ambitions, and self-representation. Ms. Cardonne-Arlyck.

Students in this course attend one weekly 75-minute class in English with students in 248a, but do some of the readings in French, attend a different 75-minute discussion period in French, and write papers in French.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

Two 75-minute periods plus evening film screenings.

[246. French-Speaking Cultures and Literatures of Africa and the Caribbean] (1)

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

Not offered in 2004/05.

248a. French National Cinema (1)

Since WWI, French cinema has defined itself as national: not only as an industry requiring protection, but as a cultural institution bearing French identity. Through the study of individual films ranging from the silent era to the present, we examine the interaction between the French and their cinema in terms of historical circumstances, economic constraints, aesthetic ambitions, and self-representation. Ms. Cardonne-Arlyck.

Readings and discussions in English. May not be counted towards the French major or correlate sequence.

Declared or prospective French majors, correlates, and students wishing to do the work in French, see French 244a.

Prerequisite: 4 units in the humanities or social sciences, or by permission of the instructor.

Two 75-minute periods plus evening film screenings.

280b. The Social Life of Fashion (1)

This course examines the emergence of fashion in/as French cultural discourse. From the 1793 repeal of the sumptuary laws forbidding non-aristocrats from wearing noble garb to the advent of the Paris department store in the 1880s, fashion underwent radical transformations that illustrate both the stratification and the upheavals of French society. Our inquiry into the rise of French fashion includes discussions of commerce and industrialization, social climbing and status, consumption and luxury, fashion magazines and fashion plates. We study literary, historical, sociological, and visual texts including works from authors such as Mercier, Balzac, Baudelaire, Zola, and Barthes. Ms. Hiner.

Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.

298a or b. Independent Work ( 1/2 or 1)

One unit of credit given only in exceptional cases and by permission of the chair. The department.

III. Advanced

Prerequisite for all advanced courses: 1 unit of 200-level work above French 235, or Study Abroad in France or in a French-speaking country, or by permission.

300a. Senior Thesis (1)

Open only to majors. The department.

Permission required.

301a or b. Senior Translation ( 1/2 or 1)

Open only to majors. One unit of credit given in exceptional cases only and by permission of the Chair. The department.

332a. Literature and Society in Pre-Revolutionary France (1)

Topic for 2004-2005: Social and Political Satire from the Medieval Beast Epic to the Guignols. Satiric literature is the product of a mature society that critically examines its institutions and the people who lead them. Since it assumes shared cultural values with its readers, it provides a window onto societies of the past. In the course, we read a range of satirical works primarily from the twelfth through the eighteenth century, contextualizing their choice of political, social, and religious targets and analyzing the rhetorical techniques employed to poke fun. Works include the twelfth-century Roman de Renart, late medieval satirical poetry by Eustache Deschamps and Christine de Pizan, Rabelais’ epic of giants, Boileau’s political and social Satires, La Fontaine’s Contes, Molière’s Tartuffe, and Voltaire’s Candide. We also analyze a number of satirical works directed at women across the centuries. Parallels are explored with contemporary satire in the French media, especially the Guignols and the Canard enchaîné. Ms. Reno.

[348. Modernism and its Discontents] (1)

One 2-hour period.

Not offered in 2004/05.

355b. Cross-Currents in French Culture (1)

Topic for 2004/05: Food and Cultural Identity in France. This course offers a study of the importance of food as a major component of French identity. We focus on food as a means of analyzing major social, economic, and political issues in France, and we explore the many ways in which food has an impact on French mentality. Topics covered include: food representation in literature and films; food and religion in France; fast food versus slow food; food as a marker of social boundaries; the restaurant industry; the food industry; food diversity and multiculturalism in today’s France. Readings include texts from Pierre Bourdieu, Fernand Braudel, Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, Jean-Louis Flandrin, Martin Bruegel, and Claude Levi-Strauss. Ms. Geist.

One 2‑hour period.

366b. Francophone Literature and Cultures (1)

Topic for 2004/05: Telling Tales: Contemporary Francophone Literatures and the Question of Memory. For the past fifteen years, memory has been a resurgent question at the center of many fruitful multidisciplinary discussions on our world’s alleged “crisis in historicity.” This course examines the representation of memory in a cross-section of Francophone novels. We look at the different ways the authors construct memory in relation to other themes: language/history, knowledge/ tradition, silencing/forgetting, the sacred/the forbidden, truth and justice, reconciliation and forgiving. We analyze the protagonists’ role as cultural mediators between a personal and a collective memory. We look at the writers’ use of language, and of discontinuity and chaos, in the elaboration of their works, as well as their literary treatment of the concept of the narrator as “witness.” Works studied include: Tanella Boni’s Les Baigneurs du Lac Rose, Boubacar Boris Diop’s Murambi, Le Livre des Ossements, Alain Mabanckou’s Les Petits-Fils Nègres de Vercingétorix, Nina Bouraoui’s Garçon Manqué, Leïla Sebbar’s, Je ne parle pas la Langue de mon Père, Gisèle Halimi’s Fritna. Theoretical excerpts from: Régine Robin’s La Mémoire Saturée, Benjamin Stora’s La Gangrène et l’Oubli. La Mémoire de I’Algérie and La Mémoire, I’Histoire, l’Oubli, Jacques Le Goff’s Histoire et Mémoire, Roland Barthes’ Le Bruissement de la langue, Régis Debray’s Transmettre, Paul Ricoeur’s Temps et Récit as well as some concise articles. Ms. Célérier.

One 2-hour period.

370a. Stylistics and Translation (1)

A study of different modes of writing and of the major problems encountered when translating from English to French, and vice versa. Practice with a broad range of both literary and nonliterary texts. The department.

[380a. Special Seminar] (1)

Not offered in 2004/05.

399a or b. Senior Independent Work ( 1/2 or 1)

One unit of credit given only in exceptional cases and by permission of the Chair. The department.

Vassar-Wesleyan Program in Paris

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

245a. Intensive Language/ Bordeaux ( 1/2)

The orientation session attempts to address most of the needs and concerns of students studying for a semester or a year in Paris. In addition to offering an intensive grammar review that allows students to function at a higher level in their classes in Paris, the Alliance also offers workshops placing a major emphasis on spoken French.

250b. The Power of the Short Story in the 19th Century: Love, Destitution, and Madness (1)

Nineteenth-century short stories explore concisely, but in depth, the universe of the Real and the Dream. A captivating mix of these two dimensions, they weave an ambiguous and interesting thread. From Mérimée, the chronicler of a daily life permeated by strangeness, to Flaubert whose apparent simplicity masks a scathing irony, the short stories studied in this course are models of efficiency and vitality. In the margins of, or as complements to, the nineteenth-century “romans-fleuves,” they illustrate surprisingly modern themes. Works studied include: Mérimée’s La Vénus d’Ille, Nerval’s Sylvie, Daudet’s La Légende de l’Homme à la Cervelle d’Or and Le Portefeuille de Bixiou, Flaubert’s Un Coeur Simple and La Légende de Saint Julien I’Hospitalier, Maupassant’s Sur I’Eau, La Parure and Le Horla. Mr. Graille.

251a. Love and Tragedy in French Theater (1)

The course first studies the nature of seventeenth-century tragedy as transformed by Corneille and Racine, who grafted a love story onto the core of myth. We then move to the twentieth century’s reshaping of the notion of the tragic through the influence of various philosophical currents. Questions of style (baroque and classical) and philosophy (existentialism and the absurd) are foregrounded, with emphasis both on the continuity of tragic literature and on formal variations from the seventeenth century to the present. Plays are chosen in light of the Paris theatrical season, so as to allow the analysis of a number of live performances. Mr. Clément.

252a. Special Topics (1)

This course is taught by the resident director. Topic varies each year.

253a. Studies in Archaeology (1)

The course examines the history, methods, and theories of French archaeology as compared with those of American archaeology. Museum visits and examples of funerary archaeology are used to illustrate excavation techniques. Artifacts are interpreted to help reconstruct and explain past cultures. Works include: J.P. Demoule’s, F. Giligny’s, A. Lehoerff’s, and A. Schnapp’s, Guide des Méthodes de I’Archéologie, and P. Jockey’s L’Archéologie. Mr. Naji.

255b. French Theater (1)

Topic may vary each year. Topic for 2004/05: Twentieth‑Century French Theater. The course is a study of contemporary French plays and theoretical texts on theater, combined with attendance at plays currently on the French stage. Sartre’s Huis Clos, as an example of existentialist and absurd theater, and Arthaud’s Théâtre et son double, are read and studied in depth. Three or four diverse plays are chosen from among those running during the current season to provide a panorama of contemporary trends in French theater. Students read and study plays, attend productions, and discuss and critique them through written work and exposés. Mr. Clément.

256b. Enlightenment Literature (1)

An introduction to the nature and spirit of the French Enlightenment through some of the major literary and philosophical works of the period. The course involves a historical presentation of the eighteenth century as well as a study of great individual works to which we still refer today in our thinking about art, science, politics, and love: Montesquieu’s Lettres persanes; Rousseau’s Discours; Diderot’s Rêve de d’Alembert and Paradoxe sur le Comédien; Voltaire’s polemical writings. Mr. Chartier.

260a. Studies in French Cinema. (1)

Topic may vary each year. Topic for 2003/04: French Directors of the Sixties and the Arts. From its inception, cinema has pursued its relationships with literature and the fine arts. In France between 1958 and 1964, a generation of film directors known as the French New Wave gives special attention to these relationships. Within this broader context, the course examines in detail the manner in which the New Wave directors develop a new cinematographic genre, the film essay. Directors include Alain Resnais, Jean‑Luc Godard, Jean‑Daniel Pollet, and Jacques Rivette. Authors include André Bazin, Suzanne Liandrat-Guigues, Jean‑Louis Leutrat, Youssef Ishaghpour, and Pascal Borlitzer. Mr. Leutrat.

261b. From Canova to Picasso: French Sculpture from 1800 to 1914 (1)

The nineteenth century is for French sculpture a period rich in continuities and contradictions, of famous and lesser known masters. This course covers the 1800s when the eighteenth century “grâces” are outshined by the “grandeurs sereines” of the neo-classical school dominated by Canova, and soon by Jean-Baptiste Houdon in France. We examine the influence of Romanticism through the works of François Rude, Barye, and Préault. We appreciate how David D’Angers, Pradier and Bosio take on this “Ecole du Mouvement” and establish a less exalted tradition. We move on to the Second Empire dominated by Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux and by Napoléon III’s great monumental commissions (the Louvre, the Opéra Garnier, etc.). From the 1870s on, the French school of Sculpture breaks up into several movements: from Realism to Orientalism, from Symbolism to the Neo-Baroque, a major figure of this time being Rodin. We conclude with the “Belle Epoque” statuary, when a sharp distinction arises between the establishment and a radical form of modernity, represented by Picasso’s, Brancusi’s, and Archipenko’s elaborate research which redefines the meaning of sculpture. Authors studied include: S. Lami, M. Rheims, H. Berman, P. Fusco and H.W. Janson, J. Hargrove, R. Butler, M.T. Baudry, J.L. Ferrier, P. Kjellberg. Mr. Peigné.

262b. Special Topics (1)

This course is taught by the resident director. Topic varies each year.

Topic for 2004/05: Paris and its Representations: Realities and Fantasies The course investigates some of the myths and realities of Paris. Starting from an analysis of Paris in late nineteenth-century novels and paintings, we explore the shifting perceptions of the city during the twentieth century in fiction, poetry, photography, painting, and film. We focus on such themes as the role of history in the structuring of the city, the importance of architecture in the ever-changing social fabric and the recurrent opposition between the city and its suburbs. Students are asked to do several on-site reports and have the choice between a final project based on a literary/sociological analysis or a creative project on a facet of the city. Major readings include: Guy de Maupassant’s Bel-Ami, Leo Malet’s Brouillard au Pont de Tolbiac, Patrick Modiano’s La Place de l’Étoile, Jean Rolin’s Zones. Among other writers and artists, we study texts by Baudelaire, Aragon, Breton, and Sebbar; paintings by Manet, Degas, Dufy, and Delaunay; photographs by Cartier-Bresson, Brassai, and Doisneau as well as films by Clair, Malle, Rohmer, and Carax. Ms. Poisson

263b. Power and Political Life in France and Europe (1)

The course studies the principal features of French and European political life. It is divided into three parts: the first focuses upon institutions, the second upon major figures, and the third upon political agendas. The central theme of the course revolves around the question of political power. Who wields it in France and Europe? How and with what resources? And for what purposes? These questions lead to the examination of a variety of subjects from a comparative perspective: the form and structure of European political regimes, the political stakes of the European construction, the power of interest groups, the reform of the welfare state, and the political treatment of minorities. Authors may include P. Bourdieu, P. Birnbaum, P. Braud, D. Pélassy, D. Schnapper, A. de Tocqueville, M. Weber. Mr. Amégan.

264b. “Are the French Exceptional?” A Cultural History of Modern France, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (1)

The course studies French cultural practices, productions and models in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The evolution of cultural “modernity” is retraced from the age of Revolutionary regenerative upheaval to Republican pedagogical projects, and from avant-garde effervescence to the rapid rise of democratic or industrial culture. Cultural shifts are identified within sets of opposing forces: rural and urban culture, popular and scientific culture, religious and secular culture, and elitist and mass culture. Themes, movements, and concepts principally treated are: “modernity,” revolutionary culture, academicism and the avant-garde, liberalism, romanticism, realism, leisure, the rise of consumer culture, cultural politics, and the Popular Front. Major authors include Pierre Bourdieu, Roger Chartier, Michel Foucault, and Walter Benjamin. Ms. Kalifa.

265a or b. Franco-African Relations (1)

Beginning with a survey of precolonial kingdoms in Africa and the implantation of Islam, the course proceeds to an analysis of European intervention and of the structure of European colonial administration. Various phases of the African independence movement are highlighted: the formation of an African elite, the spread of African nationalisms, Panafricanism, and “Négritude.” Finally, we examine French policies in the post-colonial period and the U.S.’s emerging role in African affairs. Mr. Amégan.

266b. Politics and Society (1)

Topic may vary each year.

Topic for 2004/05: History of French Feminisms (1830-2003) The course provides students with an historical survey of French feminist movements. It serves as a chronologically and thematically transversal basis for a discussion of the main debates that agitate and/or divide feminists today. It shows that the perceived lack of homogeneity of the “feminist movement” demonstrates the consensus, the traumas, and contradictions of French society. Topics studied include: patriotism and pacifism, the suffragette movement and the right to work, the “MLF”, from suffrage to parity, from “la gargonne” to the queer movement, prostitution: feminist abolitionists vs. “néo-réglementaristes,” the veil: immigration, laicity, and feminism. Ms. Taraud.

267a, 268b. History of Art (1)

This course focuses, each semester, on a different period in the history of French art, with special emphasis on the works of one or several of the major artists of the period, or of one school of art. Class visits to the Louvre, the Musée d’Orsay, the Orangerie, the Picasso Museum, or other museums containing works by artists under study are an integral part of the course. Topics may vary each year.

Topic for 2004/05 267a: Metamorphosis of the Object. The course focuses attention on the transformations undergone by the object in the work of art. It explores the nature of the object in art and how it is defined by its different aspects. Art reflects, as Spengler said, a cultural physiognomy of society. Walter Benjamin denounces the mutations caused by mass reproduction ad infinitum of the object. Roland Barthes speaks about a mythology of everyday life within which objects acquire a new fetishistic character. Introducing the object into the field of art, Marcel Duchamp endowed the object with a specific idiosyncrasy. Through the transposition of the object the artist reformulates his relationship with the world and responds to civilization in crisis. The course studies several generations of artists with radically different ambitions for the artistic object. Ms. Kraguly.

Topic for 2004/05 268b: Images of the Body. From the Greek image of the ideal body to the body as language, from mimesis to the knowledge of phenomena, the course delves into differing creative images and interpretations of the body. Artists studied include Picasso, Matisse, Giacometti, and Bacon. The course builds upon themes such as the expression of the body image, the image of identity, the attitude towards the body, and the transgressive body. Works include: K. Clark’s Le Nu, E. L. Smith’s Eroticism in Western Art, R. E. Krauss’ L’Inconscient Optique, A. Danto’s L’Art Contemporain et la Clotûre de I’Histoire, R. L. Golderg’s Performance Art, P. Comar’s Les Images du Corps, and N. Mirzoeff’s Bodyscape: Art, Modernity, and the Ideal Figure. Ms. Kraguly.

269b. Music and Culture (1)

Topic may vary each year.

Topic for 2004/05: Lyric Opera. The course retraces the history of opera in France through an appreciation of the lyric form in its musical and literary manifestations, and as a reflection of the cultural life of France in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Emphasis is given to the relation between the dramatic and musical arts, the collaboration between librettist and composer, and approaches to staging. Four operas are examined in detail: Handel, Semele (1744); Ravel, L’Heure espagnole (1911); Puccini, Gianni Schicchi (1918); and Wagner, Tannhäuser (1845). Students attend performances of these works at Paris concert halls and at the Opéra de Paris. Visits to museums of music and opera are also arranged. Prerequisites: General background in music recommended. Mr. Memed.

272a and b. Writing Workshop ( 1/2)

This half-credit course is required of all students. Those attending the Vassar-Wesleyan Program for the full year take the workshop during the first semester only. The course prepares students to write papers for their classes. It covers common problems encountered in writing French and introduces students to the organization and style of written assignments in France. Students meet individually with a tutor once a week for an additional half-hour.

273a, 274b. Special Topics: University of Paris (1)

Students in the Paris Program have the opportunity to enroll in French university courses under the supervision of the resident director and receive Vassar credit.

275b. Internship (2)

Internship in a French governmental, civic or volunteer organization through cooperation with the Internships in Francophone Europe program. Special application procedure.