Geology and Geography Department

Professor: Harvey K. Flad a, Brian J. Godfrey (Associate Chair), Jill Schneiderman (Chair); Associate Professor: Jeffrey R. Walker ab; Assistant Professors: Mary Ann Cunningham b, Brian McAdoo, Kirsten Menking, Yu Zhou.

Geography-Geology

Geography and Geology are unique in combining, within the same department, the distinctive perspectives of both the social and natural sciences at Vassar. By examining societies in their spatial and regional contexts, geography helps explain the human dimensions of environmental change. By exploring the many processes shaping the planet, geology provides an understanding of the physical limits of human activity. The interdisciplinary geography‑geology major creates a cohesive and rigorous focus on the earth as humanity’s home.

Requirements for Concentration: 12 units, including a common methods course (Geography 220, 222, or 225), an interdisciplinary senior thesis (Geography‑Geology 300b), five units of geology, and five units of geography. In geography, the five units should include: Geography 105; two 200‑level courses; Geography 301; and Geography-Geology 355 or another 300‑level geography seminar. In geology, the five units should include: Geology 151, Geology 152, two 200‑level courses (preferably Geology 230 and 260), and one 300‑level course.

Senior‑Year Requirements: Geography‑Geology 300, Geography 301

Course Offerings

See geography and geology.


Geography

Faculty: see geology-geography

Requirements for Concentration: 10 units, including an introductory course (Geography 105a or b, or 115), 220 or 222, 300, 301 and at least one additional 300-level seminar. With the consent of the adviser, 2 of the required 10 units may be taken from cognate fields, such as anthropology, geology, urban studies, environmental studies or international studies, if the courses are clearly related to the student’s focus within geography. After the declaration of the major, no required courses may be elected NRO.

Senior-Year Requirement: Geography 300; 301.

Recommendations: Geology 151; Field Work (290); and a study-abroad experience. 

Students interested in focusing their geography program in areas such as environmental design, cultural ecology, global studies, land-use planning, or historic preservation should see the department for a list of recommended course sequences in geography and related disciplines.

Advisers: Ms. Cunningham, Mr. Flad, Mr. Godfrey, Ms. Zhou.

Correlate Sequence in Geography: Geography offers correlate sequences which designate coherent groups of courses intended to complement the curricula of students majoring in other departmental, interdepartmental, and multidisciplinary programs. Students pursuing a correlate sequence in geography are required to complete a minimum of six courses in the department, including an introductory course and at least one 300-level seminar. The two suggested concentrations are outlined in detail below.

Environmental Land-Use Analysis: The correlate sequence in geography with a concentration in land-use analysis is intended for students interested in Environmental Studies. It offers a succinct program in physical geography for students interested in science education, urban planning, or environmental policy. With the consent of the adviser, one unit of geology may be selected. The six courses taken for this concentration may be selected from the following recommended list:

Geography 105 Global Geography (1)
Geography 115 Reading the Landscape (1)
Geography 220 Cartography (1)
Geography 222 Geographic Research Methods (1)
Geography 225 Geographic Information Systems (1)
Geography 250 Urban Geography (1)
Geography 255 Environmental Perception and Conservation History (1)
Geography 260 Conservation of Natural Resources (1)
Geography 265 Population, Environment, and Sustainable Development (1)
Geography 301 Senior Seminar (1)
Geography 355 Environment and Land-Use Planning (1)
Geography 370 Topics in Social and Urban Geography (1)

Regional Analysis: The correlate sequence in geography with a concentration in regional analysis is intended for students interested in area studies. It offers a succinct program in world regional geography for students interested in social studies education, international studies, or foreign language or area study. The six courses taken from this concentration may be selected from the following recommended list:

Geography 105 Global Geography (1)
Geography 220 Cartography (1)
Geography 222 Geographic Research Methods (1)
Geography 225 Geographic Information Systems (1)
Geography 230 Africa (1)
Geography 235 East Asia (1)
Geography 237 China (1)
Geography 240 Latin America (1)
Geography 242 Brazil (1)
Geography 245 American Landscapes (1)
Geography 265 Population, Environment, and Sustainable Development (1)
Geography 275 Economic Geography (1)
Geography 301 Senior Seminar (1)
Geography 340 Advanced Regional Studies (1)
Geography 370 Topics in Social and Urban Geography (1)

I. Introductory

 
105a or b. Global Geography: Cultural, Political, and Economic Systems
(1)
An introduction to human geography through the spatial analysis of cultural, political, and socioeconomic systems. Geographical perspectives on contemporary world issues are studied at the local, regional, and global scales. Geography’s major themes are introduced, including population growth and distribution, land use and settlement, cultural landscapes, natural resources, urbanization, economic development, and geopolitics, along with the analytical tools of mapping, cartographic communication, and spatial data analysis. The impacts of increasing global interdependence are examined in case studies of selected world regions. The department.
 
115a. Reading the Landscape: Exploration, Travel, and Sense of Place
(1)
Using the literature of discovery, travel, and regional description, we examine a variety of primary resources, including journals, travelogues, maps, essays, photographs, regional novels, and field observation. Major topics in world regional geography are investigated, with an emphasis on how geographers use varied sources of information to analyze spatial patterns and processes. The main emphasis in 2003/04 is on exploration and discovery, including the intellectual and scientific innovations involved in filling in the blank spots on the map. Field trips in and around the Hudson Valley allow us to explore both natural and cultural landscapes. Ms. Cunningham.
       Open to freshman only: satisfies college requirement for a Freshman Course.

The prerequisite for 200-level courses is 1 unit of introductory geography.


II. Intermediate

The prerequisite for 200-level courses is 1 unit of introductory geography.

 
220a. Cartography
(1)
Cartography, the science and art of map making, is integral to a geographer’s craft. The course reviews the history of cartography, in particular, the making of maps as a primary way for people to conceptualize and represent space around them. While being an ancient discipline, cartography is being thoroughly revolutionized by cutting-edge technology. The course is also aimed at enhancing the ability of students to interpret topographic maps, and to make thematic maps with the aid of remote sensing, computer aided graphic design and GIS. Ms. Cunningham.
       Prerequisite: by permission, preference given to students concentrating in geology and geography and those pursuing an independent program with a member of the departmental staff serving as adviser. Satisfies college requirement for quantitative reasoning.
       Two 75-minute periods; one 2-hour laboratory.
 
[222b. Geographic Research Methods]
(1)
A comprehensive overview of the most widely used research methods in collecting, analyzing, and presenting geographical data, including both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The course emphasizes hands-on experience in applying these research methods, and also critically examines their utilities and limitations. The topics include archival research, survey design, intensive interview, preliminary statistical analysis and an introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Satisfies college requirement for quantitative reasoning. Ms. Zhou.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
225b. Geographic Information Systems
(1)
An introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which use computers to organize, store, and map spatial data. The course introduces various databases and programs for analysis, along with the visual display of environmental, urban and social data.
       Two 75-minute periods; two-hour laboratory.
 
226a. Remote Sensing
(1/2)
(Same as Geology 226) Remote sensing is an increasingly important source of data for mapping and modeling earth systems. Surface features such as elevation, hydrography, soil moisture, greenness, snow cover, and urban growth are among the many factors that are monitored and measured by satellite-borne sensors. A basic understanding of remotely sensed data is, therefore, of great value to students of geography, geology, environmental science, and other fields. This 6-week course introduces the student to data collection from satellite sensors, the nature and structure of remotely sensed data, and methods of using and analyzing these data. The course uses a combination of lecture and laboratory to introduce and practice the methods of using remotely sensed data. Ms. Cunningham.
       One 3-hour period for six weeks of the semester.
       [Note: enrollment limit of 20 students]
 
[235a. East Asia: People, Culture and Economic Development]
(1)
An examination of the common and contrasting experiences of East Asian countries since the late nineteenth century. It emphasizes the regional contexts in which various environmental, cultural, social, political and economic forces overlay and interact, constituting the unique path of each country. Major themes include Japanese industrial organization, economic development in newly industrialized countries, transformation of the Chinese economy after 1978, and regional integration of East Asia. Ms. Zhou.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
[237b. China: Political-Economic Transformation]
(1)
China, one of the world’s oldest cultures, has nourished a large portion of the global population. The country thus provides invaluable wisdom and lessons concerning the human-environment relations learned through a long history and various modern transformations. The course examines China’s diverse physical environments, its cultural traditions, and human interactions with nature and society. The major part of the course, however, is devoted to its modern political economic transformation since 1949. We analyze China’s experiment with state socialism in the post-World War II era, and the dramatic changes that occurred in rural and urban China after, the reform policies since 1978. Controversial issues regarding China’s policies on human rights, minority regions, and China’s foreign relations come into focus at various points of the course. Ms. Zhou.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
240b. Latin America: Regional Development, Environment, and Urbanization
(1)
A study of developmental disparity, environmental change, and urbanization in shaping the regional geography of modern Latin America. Now overwhelmingly urbanized with some of the world’s largest mega-cities, Latin America presents both the problems and promise of contemporary sustainable-development programs by governments and non-governmental organizations Geographical perspectives enrich our understanding of uneven patterns of regional development, environmental impact, and urban growth at various scales of analysis. Topics for study include the following: development theory, colonialism’s impact on native societies, race and gender relations, land tenure and rural modernization, problems of rapid urbanization, natural resource use, and contemporary development schemes in the Amazon Basin. Overall, the course examines the prospects for sustainable and socially equitable development in this increasingly important world region. Mr. Godfrey.
       Alternate years: offered in 2003/04.
 
[242b. Brazil: Development, Urbanization, and Environment in Portuguese America]
(1)
Brazil, by far the largest and most populous country in Latin America, is a global leader among advanced emerging markets with an economy twice as large as Russia’s, almost as large as China’s, and twice India’s. After decades of military rule, Brazil now sustains a vibrant open society with a lively media and a participatory civil society in the midst of vast disparities of income and power. Contemporary democratic reforms have sought, with mixed success, to achieve more equitable and sustainable forms of development in this overwhelmingly urban country with some of the largest mega-cities in the world. Even remote parts of Amazonia are now being urbanized at rapid rates. This course examines the legacies of colonial Brazil; race relations, Afro-Brazilian culture, and ethnic identities; issues of gender, youth, violence, and poverty; processes of urban-industrial growth; regionalism and national integration; environmental conservation and sustainability; the history and continuing controversies surrounding the occupation of Amazonia; and long-run prospects for democracy and equitable development in Brazil. Mr. Godfrey.
       Alternate years: not offered in 2003-04
 
[245b. The American Landscape: From Wilderness to Walmart]
(1)
The cultural landscape of the United States and Canada is examined through studies in historical, physical, regional, and social geography. The natural environment of North America, as perceived in early descriptions and as a formative basis for resource and economic development, is studied with relation to historical settlement patterns, agriculture, urbanization, and transportation. Regional diversity is shown both through physical habitat differentiation and cultural-ethnic patterns. Spaces of production and consumption, including the metropolis, suburbia and ex-urban, are examined with an emphasis on the sociospatial relations of race, class, gender and ethnicity. Mr. Flad.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
[250b. Urban Geography: Social Space and the Built Environment]
(1)
A geographical exploration of the modern metropolis, focusing on the socio-spatial development of city-regions. Emphasis is given to how changes in geographies of production, consumption, transportation, residence, and recreation have repeatedly reshaped urban society. Specific topics for study include: the evolution of urban form and land-use patterns; globalization, global cities, and the international urban hierarchy; urban renewal, redevelopment, and gentrification; cognitive geography and mental mapping; impacts of urban change on gender, race, ethnicity, and culture; suburbanization and issues of “sprawl”; urban design, the “New Urbanism,” public space, and community planning. As much as possible, specific case studies illustrate theories so as to provide empirically grounded urban analysis. Overall, the course endeavors to give students the analytical and theoretical tools to “read” the cityscape as an urban geographer. Mr. Godfrey.
 
255b. Environmental Perception and Conservation History
(1)
An exploration of the complex interrelationships and interpretations of nature, society, space, and place. The history of the United States and international conservation and environmental movements, including legislation and NGOs, is examined through literary, philosophical, and scientific works on conservation, wilderness, preservation, ethics, and aesthetics. In addition, a focus on environmental issues and cultural landscapes of the Hudson River Valley includes field trips to representative sites throughout the bioregion. Mr. Flad.
 
[260b. Conservation of Natural Resources]
(1)
Sustainable development requires an understanding of ecosystem complexity and new ways of managing existing resources. This course provides a geographic perspective on global ecology and resource management. Emphasis is placed on global and regional environmental issues, including population growth, soil conservation, sustainable agriculture, pollution of water and air, and forest and rangeland management. Ms. Cunningham.
       Alternate years: not offered in 2003/04.
 
[265b. Population, Environment and Sustainable Development]
(1)
(Same as International Studies 265) This course examines major issues, myths, theoretical debates, and real-life controversies regarding population change and the environment from a political-ecology perspective. Political ecology studies the changing physical environment through the lens of political- economic institutions and social discourse. The first part of this course visits the theoretical debates on population and environment through demographic analysis and critical evaluation of healthcare and family planning policies. The latter half offers lessons on issues related to food scarcity and security, environmental and social movements in many developing regions such as China, India, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America. Ms. Zhou.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
275b. Economic Geography: Globalization and Regional Development
(1)
(same as International Studies 275) The spatial patterns and dynamics of the world economy are examined in diverse industrial and regional settings. The focus is on the spatial distribution of economic activities, the use of resources, and development of regional economies. Topics may include the global shift of manufacturing activities, the spatial organization of post-Fordist production, the spread and impact of agribusiness, globalization of services, foreign direct investment and multi-national corporations, and the interdependency between developed and developing economies. Ms. Zhou.
       Alternate years: offered in 2003/04.
 
288a. The United States-Mexico Border: Region, Place, and Process
(1)
The U.S. -Mexico border region is the site of the only land boundary uniting and dividing the so-called First and Third worlds from one another. Only barely older than 150 years, the border has become a highly significant bi-national region in terms of economic development, demographic growth, and ethnocultural exchange. At the same time, it has evolved from an area of relatively low importance in the national imagination of the United States (and, to a lesser extent of Mexico) to one of great significance. Nevertheless, the making and the regulation of the international boundary and the territorial conquest and dispossession it involved have long been central to nation-state-making in both countries, as well as to the production of various social categories-especially race, ethnicity, citizenship, and nationality, but also class, gender, and sexual orientation. This course investigates these developments while illustrating that the importance of the boundary is not limited to its geographical location but that it has profound effects on people's lives throughout North America as it embodies a set of processes and practices that help define, unite and divide people and places. Mr. Nevins.
       Two 75-minute periods.
 
289a. Political Geography: The nation-State System and Rise of American Nationalism and Patriotism
(1)
One of the most striking features of the modern world is the division of the global map into nominally sovereign nation-states. This course investigates the origins and evolution of this politco-geographical form of organization, along with its various manifestations including territorial boundaries, nationalism and changing conceptions of space. At the same time, the course introduces students to the study of political geography - the inter-relationship between socially constructed space(s) and political practices, structures, processes, and outcomes. As such, it also treats matters such as geopolitics, imperialism, and state-making. In the second half of the course, students focus on the rise and development of, and interrelationship between, nationalism and patriotism in the United States and their links to the politico-geographical concepts introduced earlier in the context of an increasingly globalized world. Mr. Nevins.
       Two 75-minute periods.
 
290a or b. Field Work
(1/2 or 1)
The department.
       Reading Courses
 
 

Reading Courses

 
[297.01a or b. Geography in the Elementary and Secondary School Curriculum]
(1/2)
An introduction to the study of geography in both elementary and secondary schools as part of the social studies curriculum, stressing world regional differentiation, and in the earth sciences curriculum with a focus on the field of environmental education. Mr. Flad.
       Prerequisite: permission of instructor.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
[297.02a or b. Geography, Ecology, Culture]
(1/2)
A geographic perspective on the environment and man, examining primitive and peasant subsistence patterns, their processes of resource utilization, and the resulting modification of the landscape. Mr. Flad.
       Prerequisite: permission of instructor.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
298a or b. Independent Work
(1/2 or 1)
Open to qualified students in other disciplines who wish to pursue related inde-pendent work in geography. The department.
 
 

III. Advanced

 
300b. Senior Thesis
(1)
The department.
 
301a. Senior Seminar: Issues in Geographic Theory and Method
(1)
A review of the theory, method, and practice of geographical inquiry. The seminar traces the history of geographic thought from early episodes of global exploration to modern scientific transformations. The works and biographies of major contemporary theorists are critically examined in terms of the changing philosophies of geographic research. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are discussed, along with scientific, humanist, radical, feminist, and other critiques in human geography. Overall, alternative conceptions of geography are related to the evolution of society and the dominant intellectual currents of the day. The student is left to choose which approaches best suits his or her own research. The seminar culminates in the presentation of student research proposals. Mr. Godfrey.
       One 2-hour period.
 
340b. Advanced Regional Studies
(1)
This seminar examines a selected world region, regions, or global regional interactions. Topics may vary from year to year. Previous seminar themes include: culture clash in Latin America; Central Asia in transition; Art, Ethnicity, and Environment in the American Southwest; and the Asian diaspora. May be repeated for credit if the region or topic has changed.
       One 2-hour period; field trips.
 
350a. New York City as a Social Laboratory
(1)
(Same as Urban Studies 350 and Sociology 350) In a classic essay on urban studies, sociologist Robert Park once called the city “a laboratory or clinic in which human nature and social processes may be conveniently and profitably studied.” The scale, dynamism, and complexity of New York City make it a social laboratory without equal. This seminar provides a multidisciplinary inquiry into New York City as a case study in selected urban issues. Classroom meetings are combined with the field-based investigations that are a hallmark of Urban Studies. Site visits in New York City allow meetings with scholars, officials, developers, community leaders and others actively involved in urban affairs.
       Topic for 2003/04: Urban Redevelopment and Gentrification in a Global City. An examination of urban redevelopment an related processes of gentrification in the historical-geographical contexts of globalization, social change, immigration, economic restructuring, and planning in New York City. The seminar focuses on the socio-spatial impacts of government- and corporate-sponsored programs of urban renewal on communities in Lower Manhattan, Greenwich Village, Times Square, Harlem, the South Bronx, Brooklyn and Queens. After visiting these areas and discussing relevant issues with experts, students carry out independent field research on topics of their own choice. Mr. Godfrey.
       Prerequisite. Geography 250 or permission of instructor.
       One 3-hour session; field trips to New York City.
       Alternate years: offered in 2003/04.
 
355b. Environment and Land-Use Planning
(1)
(Same as Geology 355 and Environmental Studies 355) This seminar focuses on such land-use issues as social and environmental impact studies, open-space planning, conservation and resource management, agriculture, housing, and recreation and tourism. Case studies may be drawn from either North America or the Third World; local examples will include analysis of state and federal regulations and field work. Topics for study may include the changing rural American landscape, including farmland preservation; local and state environmental review in locational conflicts, such as water quality or the siting of landfills; or sustainable development and ecotourism. The department.
       Prerequisite: Geography 245, 255, 265 or permission of instructor.
       One 2-hour period.
 
[360b. Asian Diasporas]
(1)
Focusing on Asian diasporas, this course engages the current surge of interest in diaspora studies from both anthropological and geographical perspectives. Attention is given to issues of colonial and post-colonial struggles, formation and transformation of ethnic identities, roles of middlemen minorities, and nationalism and transnationalism of Asian diasporas. The principal cases are drawn from East Asian and South Asian communities in Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the U.S. Ms. Kaplan, Ms. Zhou.
       One 2-hour period.
       Alternate years: not offered in 2003/04.
 
370b. Topics in Social and Urban Geography
(1)
An inquiry into the spatial expressions of social relations in modern urban societies. The seminar focuses on the socio-spatial interrelationships of such phenomena as class, race, ethnicity, gender, and politics. The specific topic of study varies from year to year. Previous seminar themes include the urban-industrial transition, the urban frontier, urban poverty, cities of the Americas, segregation in the city, and global migration. May be repeated for credit if the topic changes.
       Topic for 2003/04: Ethnic Geography of America. Are today’s immigrants different from the previous generations? Is the assimilation model no longer workable or desirable? Do the locations of immigrants affect their social mobility? How does globalization affect contemporary immigrants? These are the questions this seminar addresses. The seminar is a multidisciplinary discussion of the changing theoretical discourses on studying ethnic groups in America from the perspectives of assimilationism to multiculturalism and transnationalism We contrast the historical experiences of the European immigrants and the experiences of contemporary Hispanic and Asian population in different areas of the U.S., particularly in New York and Los Angeles. The topics include immigrant social mobility, political organization, cultural assimilation, changes in gender relations, and transnational linkages. Ms. Zhou.
       One 2-hour period.
 
380b. Terrorism and Imperialism
(1)
What is terrorism and what is its relationship to empire? Is imperialism (carried out in a benign manner by the United States and its powerful allies) the proper response to terrorism? Does imperialism give rise to terrorism? Or, is imperialism a more systematic form of violence, one that brings about far more human suffering, than terrorism? How have terrorism and imperialism influenced global geography historically, as well as in the post-Cold War and post-9-11 eras? This seminar addresses these questions by investigating debates surrounding what is conventionally defined as terrorism, with a particular focus on the Middle East. The course also examines the growing literature that perceives the United States as an imperialist power of various types—from beneficent to malignant—and sometimes champions an American empire for diverse reasons. In doing so, the seminar analyzes the exercise of American power in various sites across the globe. Mr. Nevins.
       One 2-hour period.
 
386a. Senior Seminar
(1)
(Same as Urban Studies 386a) This course concentrates on advanced debates in Urban Studies and is designed to encourage students to produce research/grant proposals for projects in Urban Studies. Topics vary according to instructor. This seminar is required of all Urban Studies majors.
       Topic for 2003/04: Global Cities: Urbanization in a Post-City Age? This seminar explores the contemporary phenomena called “globalization,” paying particular attention to the rise of global cities within the context of transnational networks of trade, migration, information, finance, and cultural exchange. We explore the implications of globalization for understandings of place, work, family, cultural identity, citizenship, the nation, and the state. We also consider movements and discourses of resistance formed within and/or in opposition to the new global system. Reading such authors as David Harvey, Mike Davis, Saskia Sassen, and Rem Koolhaas, we ask whether the rate and scale of global urbanization now outpaces established definitions of “the city.” Ms. Brawley, Mr. Godfrey.
 
399a or b. Senior Independent Work
(1/2 or 1)
The department.

Geology


Faculty: see geology-geography.

Requirements for Concentration: 10 units including 151, 152, 201, 2 units of graded work at the 300-level, and not more than 1 additional unit at the 100-level. With consent of advisor, one 200-level course may be substituted for by 200- or 300-level work in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics, or Environmental Science. After declaration of the major, courses in geology may not be taken NRO.

Senior-Year Requirement: One graded 300-level course.

Recommendations: Students interested in graduate study in geology or environmental science should also take one year of laboratory biology, chemistry and/or physics. In addition, calculus is highly recommended. Appropriate courses include: Biology 105, 106; Chemistry 108/109, 110/111; Math 101, 102; Physics 113, 114. Analysis of spatial data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is becoming increasingly important so Geography 225 is strongly recommended. All geology majors are urged to attend a six-week geology summer field camp. The choices of locations, times, and university sponsors of such field work are many, and geology department faculty will help select an appropriate summer field experience.

Independent Research: The geology department encourages students to engage in ungraded independent research with faculty advisers and offers 198 (for freshmen and sophomores), 298 (for juniors), and 399 (for seniors). Geology majors are encouraged to engage in senior-year research, and the department offers 300-301, an ungraded research-based senior thesis experience. Only those who complete 300-301 are eligible for departmental honors upon graduation. 

Because there are many applications of geology to a variety of different careers, we urge potential majors to consult with a faculty member in the geology department as soon as possible upon arrival at Vassar in order to decide on the most appropriate sequence of required and recommended courses. Also, each year the geology department offers courses at the 100-level designed for students who may not intend to pursue geology at more advanced levels. These courses are appropriate for students curious about the earth and its life. They are especially relevant for students with concerns about environmental degradation and its impact on people living in both urban and rural settings.

Advisers: Mr. McAdoo, Ms. Menking, Ms. Schneiderman, Mr. Walker.

Correlate Sequence in Geology: Geology offers a correlate sequence which can complement the curricula of students majoring in other departmental, interdepartmental, and multidisciplinary programs. Students pursuing a correlate sequence in geology are required to complete a minimum of five courses in the department including 151, 152, and at least one 300-level course. Students should carefully note the prerequisites required for enrollment in some of the courses within the correlate sequence.

 

I. Introductory

 
[100a. The Earth Around Us]
(1/2)
A series of lectures on topics such as water quality, soil erosion, global climate change, coastal development and environmental justice. A broad introduction to environmental problems and their impact on all living things. Ms. Schneiderman.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
[101a. The Nature of Science]
(1)
This course explores the question, “what is science?” by looking at examples from the history of natural sciences and questions such as: How is science portrayed by the press? Do biased results “count” as science? Is the history of science a history of mistakes? Is bad science different from biased science? Where are the women and minority scientists? Topics include views of geologic time, the formation of the earth, development of plate tectonic theory, the size and morphology of organisms, creationism, craniometry, and the geography of research laboratories. Ms. Schneiderman.
       Open to freshmen only: satisfies college requirement for a Freshman Course.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
104b. Oceanography
(1)
The world’s oceans make life on Earth possible. By studying the interactions among atmosphere, water, sediment, and the deep inner-workings of the earth, we gain an understanding of where the earth has been, where it is now, and where it is likely to go. Topics include: historical perspectives on the revolutionary discoveries in marine exploration; seafloor and ocean physiochemical structure; air-sea interactions from daily and seasonal weather patterns to climate change and El Niño cycles; earthquakes and tsunamis; waves and coastal processes; and critical biologic communities unique to the marine environment. Mandatory field trip to the beach. Mr. McAdoo.
 
151a and b. Earth, Environment, and Humanity
(1)
An introductory level course covering basic physical processes of the earth including plate tectonics, atmospheric and oceanic circulation, and biogeochemical cycles, geologic hazards such as earthquakes, floods, and volcanic eruptions, human impacts on the environment including ozone depletion and acid rain, and sustainability. Ms. Menking.
       Two 75-minute periods; one 4-hour laboratory. Several laboratory sessions are devoted to off-campus field trips.
 
152b. The Evolution of Earth and its Life
(1)
An examination of the origin of the earth and the evolution of life on this planet particularly in relation to global environmental change today. Topics include systematic paleontology, evolution and creationism, the profound depth of geologic time and its ramifications for life on earth, and mass extinctions of dinosaurs and other organisms. The department.
       Two 75-minute periods; one 4-hour laboratory. Several laboratory sessions are devoted to off-campus field trips.
 
198a or b. Special Projects in Geology
(1/2 or 1)
Execution and analysis of field, laboratory, or library study. Project to be arranged with individual instructor. The department.
       Open to first-year students and sophomores only.
 

II. Intermediate

Geology 151 and 152 are prerequisites for entry into 200-level courses unless otherwise stated.

 
201b. Earth Materials: Minerals, Rocks, and Soils
(1)
The earth is made up of many different materials, including minerals, rocks, soils, and ions in solution, which represent the same atoms recycled continually by geological and biogeochemical cycles. This course takes a wholistic view of the earth in terms of the processes leading to the formation of different materials. The class involves study in the field as well as in the laboratory using hand specimen identification along with the optical microscope and X-ray diffractometer. Ms. Schneiderman.
       Two 75-minute periods; one 4-hour laboratory, field trips.
 
[230a. Soils and Terrestrial Ecosystems]
(1)
Soils form an important interface between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. As such, they are critical to understanding terrestrial ecosystems. This course studies soil formation, and the physical and chemical properties of soils especially as related to natural and altered ecosystems. Field trips and laboratory work focus on the description and interpretation of local soils. Mr. Walker.
       Prerequisite: one introductory course in Geology, Biology, or Chemistry.
       Two 75-minute periods; one 4-hour laboratory/field session.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
[240b. Global Geophysics and Tectonics]
(1)
What can physics and simple math tell us about the earth? By utilizing an array of techniques, geophysicists gain an understanding of the processes that shape our planet. Reflection and earthquake seismology give us insight into deep earth structure, plate tectonic mechanisms, mountain building, basin formation, and hazard mitigation. Variations in the earth’s gravitational field yield information on density contrasts beneath the surface, from the scale of mountain ranges to buried artifacts. Heat flow variations are useful in determining regional subsurface thermal structure, fluid advection, and climate variation. Laboratories are designed to use the skills required in most geology related fields. They involve the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, and construction of simple computer models. Mr. McAdoo.
       Two 75-minute periods; one 4-hour laboratory.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
241a. Digital Underground
(1)
This interdisciplinary project-based field course examines one study area throughout the course of the semester, collecting geophysical and archival data in the beginning, compiling and analyzing the data in a Geographic Information System (GIS), and synthesizing towards the end, culminating in a presentation of the results. An array of tools including an electrical resistivity meter, a Cesium vapor magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar, are used survey various anthropogenic and natural structures. Historical and sociological research is used to place the project in context. Topics vary from year to year, but field locations may include pre-Columbian or historical archaeological sites such as forgotten African-American burial grounds, or sites of environmental concern to both citizens and developers. Mr. McAdoo.
       Prerequisite Geology 240 or Physics 114 or permission of instructor for non-science majors.
       Two 75-minute periods; one 4-hour laboratory/field session.
 
250a. Sediments, Strata, and the Environment
(1)
Detailed study of modern sedimentary environments and their use in interpreting ancient sedimentary rocks. The chemical and physical processes leading to weathering, erosion, transport, deposition, and lithification of sediments are considered. Field interpretation of local Paleozoic, Pleistocene, and Holocene sediments are carried out through field study. Laboratories include the study of sediments in hand sample and using the petrographic microscope. Ms. Schneiderman.
       Prerequisite: Geology 201.
       Two 75-minute periods; one 4-hour laboratory/field session.
 
[260a. Geomorphology: Surface Processes and Evolution of Landforms]
(1)
Quantitative study of the geological processes and factors which influence the origin and development of Earth’s many landforms. Topics include hillslope and channel processes, sediment transport, physical and chemical weathering and erosion, role of regional and local tectonics in the construction of marine terraces, mountain ranges and basins, and the role of climate in landscape modification. The department.
       Two 75-minute periods; one 4-hour laboratory/field session.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
270b. Structural Geology and Tectonics
(1)
The study of the processes and products of crustal deformation and of the plate tectonic paradigm. Topics include the mechanics of deformation, earthquakes, mountain-building, geophysical principles, and neotectonics. Ms. Menking.
       Two 75-minute periods; one 4-hour laboratory/field session.
 
290a or b. Field Work
(1/2 or 1)
 
298a or b. Independent Work
(1/2 or 1)
Execution and analysis of a field, laboratory or library study. The project, to be arranged with an individual instructor, is expected to have a substantial paper as its final product. The department.
       Permission of instructor is required.
 

III. Advanced

Prerequisite: 2 units of 200-level geology; see specific additions or exceptions for each course.

 
300-301. Senior Research and Thesis
(1/2)
Critical analysis, usually through observation or experimentation, of a specific research problem in geology. A student electing this course must first gain, by submission of a written research proposal, the support of a member of the geology faculty with whom to work out details of a research protocol. The formal research proposal and a final paper and presentation of results are required parts of the course. A second faculty member participates in the final evaluation. The department.
       Permission of instructor is required.

Prerequisite: 2 units of 200-level geology; see specific additions or exceptions for each course.

 
[320. Advanced Topics in Environmental Geology]
(1)
Selected topics in environmental geology such as quaternary geology, climate change, water in environmental planning, contaminant transport in aqueous systems, and the geology of natural resources. The department.
       One 4-hour classroom/laboratory session.
       Not offered in 2003/04.

Prerequisite: 2 units of 200-level geology; see specific additions or exceptions for each course.

 
345b. Oil
(1)
(Same as Environmental Studies 345) For the hydraulic civilizations of Mesopotamia, it was water. For the Native Americans of the Great Plains, it was buffalo. As we enter the twenty-first century, our society is firmly rooted both culturally and economically in oil. This class looks into almost every aspect of oil. Starting at the source with kerogen generation, we follow the hydrocarbons along migration pathways to a reservoir with a suitable trap. We look at the techniques geologists and geophysicists use to find a field, and how engineers and economists get the product from the field to refineries, paying particular attention to environmental concerns. What is involved in the negotiations between multinational corporations and developing countries over production issues? What are the stages in refining oil from the crude that comes from the ground to the myriad uses seen today, including plastics, pharmaceuticals, and fertilizers, not to mention gasoline? We also discuss the future of this rapidly dwindling, non-renewable resource, and options for an oil-less future. Mr. McAdoo, Mr. Rashid.
       Prerequisite: Geology 104 or 151 or permission of instructors.
       One 4-hour classroom/laboratory session.

Prerequisite: 2 units of 200-level geology; see specific additions or exceptions for each course.

 
350b. Advanced Sedimentology
(1)
This course focuses on the petrographic and geochemical aspects of a current environmental problem that can be approached sedimentologically. We use the primary literature to discover the wide range of tools available to the modern sedimentologist and their application to one of many significant problems in the field. Laboratory gives hands-on practice with the collection and evaluation of sedimentologic and geochemical data. The department.
       Topic for 2003-04: Dinosauria. Exploration of topics in vertebrate paleontology focusing on dinosaurs and their modern relatives, crocodilians and birds. The course first examines the origin and evolution of major dinosaurian groups. It then moves on to discussion of current issues in paleobiology- such as dinosaur physiology, growth, extinction, and the origin of birds.
       Prerequisite: Geology 201 and 250 or permission of instructor.
       One 4-hour classroom/laboratory session.

Prerequisite: 2 units of 200-level geology; see specific additions or exceptions for each course.

 
[355b. Environment and Land Use Planning]
(1)
(Same as Geography 355 and Environmental Studies 355)

Prerequisite: 2 units of 200-level geology; see specific additions or exceptions for each course.

 
360a. Paleoclimatology: Earth’s History of Climate Change
(1)
This course discusses how Earth’s climate system operates and what natural processes have led to climate change in the past. We examine the structure and properties of the oceans and atmosphere and how the general circulation of these systems redistributes heat throughout the globe. In addition, we study how cycles in Earth’s orbital parameters, plate tectonics, and the evolution of plants have affected climate. Weekly laboratory projects introduce students to paleoclimatic methods and to real records of climate change. Ms. Menking.
       Prerequisite: Geology 201, 250, and 260 or permission of instructor.
       One 4-hour classroom/laboratory session.

Prerequisite: 2 units of 200-level geology; see specific additions or exceptions for each course.

 
[365b. Computer Methods and Modeling in Geology]
(1)
Computer models have become powerful tools in helping us to understand complex natural systems. They are in wide use in geology in climate change research, prediction of groundwater and contaminant flow paths in sediments, and seismic hazard prediction, among other applications. This course introduces students to conceptual modeling with the use of the Stella box-modeling software package. Taking readings from the geological literature, we create and then perform experiments with simple computer models. Students also learn how to code their conceptual models in the programming language Fortran, the most widely used language in geology today. Ms. Menking.
       One 4-hour classroom/laboratory session.
       Not offered in 2003/04.

Prerequisite: 2 units of 200-level geology; see specific additions or exceptions for each course.

 
[381b. Continental Margins]
(1)
From oil to fisheries to mining operations, the continental shelf and slope environment house most of our offshore resources. Additionally the margins of the continents are hazardous, where earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, turbidity currents, and storm waves challenge those who work and live there. This class investigates these processes and how they are preserved in the geologic record. Mr. McAdoo.
       Prerequisite: Geology 240 or 250 or 270 or permission of the instructor.
       One 4-hour period.
       Not offered in 2003/04.

Prerequisite: 2 units of 200-level geology; see specific additions or exceptions for each course.

 
399a or b. Senior Independent Work
(1/2 or 1)
Execution and analysis of a field, laboratory, or library study. The project, to be arranged with an individual instructor, is expected to have a substantial paper as its final product. The department.
       Permission of instructor is required.