French Department

Professors: Elisabeth Cardonne-Arlyckb, Cynthia B. Kerr, Christine Reno; Associate Professors: Mark Andrews (Chair), Patricia-Pia Célérier, Kathleen Hart; Assistant Professor: Susan Hiner.

All courses are conducted in French except French 188 and 248.

Requirements for Concentration: 11 units excluding French 248, and including at least 3 units at the 300-level. No courses in French elected after the declaration of the major may be taken NRO.

Senior Year Requirements: 3 units of French at the 300-level.

Teaching Certification: Students who wish to obtain Secondary Certification must complete the program of study outlined by the education department.

Advisers: The department.

Study Abroad: Vassar College and Wesleyan University sponsor jointly a program of study in Paris. Majors in French are expected to participate in this program for one or two semesters during their junior year. Students electing a correlate sequence in French are also encouraged to participate in the program. Students concentrating in other fields for whom study in Paris is advisable are accepted, within the regulations of their respective departments and the Office of the Dean of Studies. Courses offered in the Paris program are included below. Students of French who are unable to study abroad during the academic year are strongly encouraged to attend the summer program at Middlebury College French School, or other summer programs in France or French-speaking countries.

Correlate Sequence in French: Students majoring in other programs may complement their study by electing a correlate sequence in French. Course selection should be made in consultation with the chair or other advisers in the department.

Requirements: 6 units excluding French 248, at least 5 of which must be taken above the 100-level. At least 1 but preferably 2 units must be taken at the 300-level. No French courses elected after declaration of the correlate sequence may be taken NRO. 

Study Away and summer courses may be substituted in the correlate sequence, with departmental approval. A majority of units in the correlate sequence must be taken at Vassar.


I. Introductory

 
105a-106b. Elementary French
(1)
Fundamentals of the language. Students learn to understand spoken French, to express simple ideas both orally and in writing, and to read French of average difficulty. The department.
       Not open to students who have previously studied French.
       Three 50-minute class periods, 2 hours of drill and oral practice.
 
188a. Pre-Revolutionary French Women Writers
(1)
Women were not granted access to formal higher education in France until the late nineteenth century. Many, nonetheless, wrote for a public audience and even achieved fame as writers several hundred years before. What kinds of women wrote, and what different kinds of works did they produce? How did they define themselves, and what evidence is there for how they were regarded in their own time? Finally, can one discern a ‘feminine style’ or a ‘feminine voice’ in the writings of these authors? Beginning with Marie de France and Heloise in the twelfth century, we also study works by Christine de Pizan (fifteenth century), Marguerite de Navarre and Marie de Gournay (sixteenth), and some of the novelists, fairy tale authors and “salonnières” of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Ms. Reno.
       Open only to freshmen.
 

II. Intermediate

 
205a and b. Intermediate French I
(1)
Fast-paced review of the main points of basic grammar. Includes practice in speaking, listening, reading, and writing, through written exercises, short texts and compositions, and work with the audiovisual resources of the language laboratory. The department.
       Prerequisite: French 105-106 or two years of French in high school.
       Three 50-minute or two 75-minute periods; one hour of scheduled oral practice.
 
206a and b. Intermediate French II
(1)
Expanded grammar study with an emphasis on more complex linguistic structures such as relative pronouns and the subjunctive. Reading, writing, and speaking skills are developed through discussion of cultural and literary texts and use of audiovisual material. This course prepares students linguistically for cultural and literary study at the intermediate level. The department.
       Prerequisite: French 205 or three years of French in high school. French 105-106 by permission of instructor.
       Three 50-minute or two 75-minute periods; one hour of scheduled oral practice.
 
212a and b. Reading French Literature and Film
(1)
Introduction to the analysis of literature and film and to basic modes of interpretation through the study and discussion of short texts (poems, short stories, films, plays, essays). The department.
       Prerequisite: French 206 or four years of French in high school.
 
213a and b. France Through Her Media
(1)
An introductory study of France through current newspapers, magazines, television programs, films and the web. A strong emphasis is placed on the expansion of vocabulary and on oral and written expression. Some grammar review. The department.
       Prerequisite: French 206 or four years of French in high school.
 
228a. Tellers and Tales
(1)
Study of short stories taken from several periods of French literature. Introduction to the study of narrative forms and critical writing.
       Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.
 
230b. Medieval and Early Modern Times
(1)
Studies in French literature, history, and culture from the Medieval to the Classical period.
       Topic for 2003/04: The Politics of Seduction. Introduction to the literature and culture of France, with a special focus on woman as subject and object of desire. Readings include Tristan et Iseult, the love poetry of Ronsard and Louise Labé, La Princesse de Clèves, a story of illicit passion by France’s first prominent woman novelist, and classical theater’s masterpieces of love and deception authored by Corneille, Racine, and Molière. The course concludes with Diderot’s celebrated narrative, La Religieuse, about a young woman’s struggle for emancipation in pre-Revolutionary France. Ms. Kerr.
       Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.
 
231b. Revolutionary France and Its Legacies
(1)
Studies in French literature, history, and culture in relation to the French Revolution during the Enlightenment and the Romantic period.
       Topic for 2003/04: Power Plays: Servants and Their Masters in an Age of Revolution. France underwent a period of massive transition on both the domestic and political scales in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A world of rigid hierarchy was becoming destabilized, though not entirely dismantled. This course interrogates the nature of power by focusing on the representation of master/servant relationships, slavery, and patriarchy in the theater and prose of the Enlightenment and Romantic period. What is the power of the master? What is the power of the servant? On whose side are the writers who represent masters and servants? While pursuing these questions, we will also examine how some writers use critiques of class privilege to promote the causes of feminism and abolitionism. Authors include Beaumarchais, Gouges, Marivaux, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Sand. Ms. Hart.
       Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.
 
[232. The Modern Age]
(1)
The course explores literary, artistic, social, or political manifestations of modern French society and its relation to the French-speaking world from the Napoleonic Empire to the present.
       Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
235b. Contemporary France
(1)
A study of French society and culture from WWII to the present. Starting with the 1939 German occupation and its enduring marks on the French, the course draws on a variety of texts (historical documents, novels and short stories, special issues of selected French magazines and journals, movies and documentaries) to examine the impact on society and culture of the major historical events that have shaped France. Attention is given to Metropolitan France, its colonies and its Départements d’Outre-Mer (Martinique, Guadeloupe, Guiana, and Reunion).
       Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.
 
240a. Study of French Grammar
(1)
In-depth study of major aspects of French grammar. Grammar exercises, compositions, and oral practice. Ms. Cardonne-Arlyck.
       Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.
 
241b. Composition and Conversation
(1)
A course designed to improve written and oral expression, through the study and practice of various forms of writing, and the discussion of readings on contemporary issues. Mr. Andrews.
       Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.
 
[242. Studies in Genre I]
(1)
Study of narrative and prose forms including the novel, autobiography, and the essay.
       Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
243a. Studies in Genre II
(1)
Study of dramatic and lyric forms including theater, poetry, and song.
       Topic for 2003/04: “The Play’s the Thing”: Contemporary French and Francophone Theater. An examination, through theater, of major developments in late twentieth-century thought, including existentialism, anticolonialism, and the avant-garde. From the politically committed “théâtre de situations” of Jean-Paul Sartre to the “théâtre de la négritude” of Aimé Césaire, the “désengagement” of Samuel Beckett, and the fierce social satire of Eugène lonesco and Jean Genet. We explore how contemporary dramatists use the stage to parody society and/or effect change. Prominent women playwrights and directors are studied: Fatima Gallaire, Marie Redonnet, Anne Hébert, Ariane Mnouchkine. Students read dramatic literature, theory, and criticism, watch filmed performances, and work on their own interpretation of scenes from famous contemporary plays. Emphasis is placed on oral participation. Ms. Kerr.
       Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.
 
244a. French National Cinema
(1)
Since WWI, French cinema has defined itself as national: not only as an industry requiring protection, but as a cultural institution bearing French identity. Through the study of individual films ranging from the silent era to the present, we examine the interaction between the French and their cinema in terms of historical circumstances, economic constraints, aesthetic ambitions, and self-representation. Ms. Cardonne-Arlyck.
       Students in this course attend one weekly 75-minute class in English with students in 248a, but do some of the readings in French, attend a different 75-minute discussion period in French, and write papers in French.
       Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.
       Two 75-minute periods plus evening film screenings.
 
[246b. French-Speaking Cultures and Literatures of Africa and the Caribbean]
(1)
Prerequisite: another 200-level course above French 206 or equivalent.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
248a. French National Cinema
(1)
Since WWI, French cinema has defined itself as national: not only as an industry requiring protection, but as a cultural institution bearing French identity. Through the study of individual films ranging from the silent era to the present, we examine the interaction between the French and their cinema in terms of historical circumstances, economic constraints, aesthetic ambitions, and self-representation. Ms. Cardonne-Arlyck.
       Readings and discussions in English. May not be counted towards the French major or correlate sequence.
       Declared or prospective French majors, correlates, and students wishing to do the work in French, see French 244a.
       Two 75-minute periods plus evening film screenings.
 
298a or b. Independent Work
(1/2 or 1)
One unit of credit given only in exceptional cases and by permission of the chair. The department.
 

III. Advanced

Prerequisite for all advanced courses: 1 unit of 200-level work above French 235, or Study Abroad in France or in a French-speaking country, or by permission.
 
300a. Senior Thesis
(1)
Open only to majors. The department.
       Permission required.
 
301a or b. Senior Translation
(1/2 or 1)
Open only to majors. One unit of credit given in exceptional cases only and by permission of the Chair. The department.
 
[332a. Literature and Society in Pre-Revolutionary France]
(1)
Not offered in 2003/04.
 
[348b. Modernism and its Discontents]
(1)
Not offered in 2003/04.
 
355b: Cross-Currents in French Culture
(1)
Topic for 2003/04: Foreign Lands, Inner Journeys. As of the nineteenth century, the French encountered other cultures on an unprecedented scale due to colonialist expansion and an increase in tourism. Travel narratives and literary evocations of “local color” became popular, providing the reading public with an opportunity to learn about foreign lands and peoples. Yet travelers who write, and writers who travel, often express more about themselves than the cultures they purport to represent in their texts. Assumptions of national superiority, or dreams of a romantic “elsewhere” distort the traveler’s perception. Changes in geographical location may be accompanied by a feeling of “strangeness,” leading the traveler to undergo an unexpected inner odyssey. As we explore the relationships between writing, displacement (both literal and psychological), and confrontation with an exotic “other,” we consider the ideological implications of travel in the modern age. Theoretical readings, and authors such as Bouvier, Eberhardt, Flaubert, Gide, Segalen, Tristan. Ms. Hart.
       One 2-hour period.
 
366b. Francophone Literature and Cultures
(1)
Topic for 2003/04: Island Writers. The course studies the contemporary literary production of island writers from France’s overseas departments and territories, and from Haiti. Writing in French, these authors are situated at a linguistic and cultural crossroads, and their use of language reflects a dynamic and rapidly evolving relationship with the multilingual forces at play in their communities of origin. Their creative practice is responsive to present political and economic realities and resonates to the oral traditions that form a vital connection with their past. We investigate how the figure of the island informs the imaginative representation of language and culture in their fiction and poetry. Consideration is given to the different aesthetic and ideological positions traversed by these artists in their attitudes toward France and the French language, from adversarial resistance to an embrace of linguistic diversity, what Edouard Glissant envisions as the archipelago of language. Authors may include: Patrick Chamoiseau, Dany Laferrière, Déwé Gorodé, Michou Chaze, Gisèle Pineau, Guy Tirolien, Ernest Pépin, Jean-François Samlong, and Monique Agénor. Mr. Andrews
       One 2-hour period.
 
370a. Stylistics and Translation
(1)
A study of different modes of writing and of the major problems encountered when translating from English to French, and vice versa. Practice with a broad range of both literary and nonliterary texts. Ms. Reno.
       French 380a. Special Seminar
       -1
       Topic for 2003/04: Sex and the City: Paris, Prostitutes, and the Demi-Monde. The “demi-monde” denotes the world of artists, prostitutes, actors, and others who were excluded from that other world—“le grand monde”—the world of high society. While apparently marginalized from proper society, prostitutes and her many variants held center stage in the great fiction of the era, signaling that they performed an important social function in spite of (or because of?) their marginalization. Plots around prostitution turn out to be plots about social and sexual politics, cultural mores, insatiable consumerism, and shifting class structure. In this course we explore the realm of the demi-monde and of the world it shadows by paying particular attention to the key figure of the courtesan, who occupies the top spot of the social ladder among prostitutes, and her lower-class variants. Along with historical and critical texts, works studied may include Murger’s Scènes de la vie de bohème, Balzac’s Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes, Dumas fils’ La Dame au camélias, Flaubert’s l’Education sentimentale, Zola’s Nana, Colette’s Gigi. Ms. Hiner.
       One 2-hour period.
 
399a or b. Senior Independent Work
(1/2 or 1)
One unit of credit given only in exceptional cases and by permission of the Chair. The department.

Vassar-Wesleyan Program in Paris

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
245a. Intensive Language/ Bordeaux
(1/2)
The orientation session attempts to address most of the needs and worries of students studying for a semester or a year in Paris. In addition to offering an intensive grammar review that allows students to function at a much higher level in their classes in Paris, the Alliance Francaise also offers workshops placing a major emphasis on spoken French.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
250b. “Poète maudit”: Birth and Death of the Myth
(1)
How did the poet, a key figure at the Renaissance court, come to be considered by the end of the nineteenth century as a rebel, a literary outlaw? How does the modern poet define himself in this century and beyond under the shadow of this stereotype? After highlighting various milestones of poetry’s liberation from the constraints of literary patronage (D’Aubigné’s engaged epics, La Fontaine’s contradictory verse, Hugo’s Romanticism) the course focuses on the major “poètes maudits” of the post-Romantic period: Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Verlaine and Lautréamont. Ms. Garcia.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
251a. Love and Tragedy in French Theater
(1)
This course first studies the nature of seventeenth-century tragedy as transformed by Corneille and Racine, who grafted a love story onto the core of myth. We then move to the twentieth century’s reshaping of the notion of the tragic through the influence of various philosophical currents. Questions of style (baroque and classical) and philosophy (existentialism and the absurd) are foregrounded, with emphasis both on the continuity of tragic literature and on formal variations from the seventeenth century to the present. Plays are chosen in light of the Paris theatrical season, so as to allow the analysis of a number of live performances. Mr. Clément.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
252a. Special Topics
(1)
This course is taught by the resident director. Topic varies each year.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
253a. Contemporary French History
(1)
This course focuses on French political history since 1958 and salient features of France’s political institutions: strengths and weaknesses of the 1958 Constitution; the shared leadership of president and prime minister; the evolving role of the Assemblée Nationale and the constitutional and state councils. We analyze the strategies of the various political parties and the two recent major transformations in civil society: the urban crisis and the increasing visibility of women and minority groups (youths and immigrants) in the political arena. Franco-American relations and France’s emerging role in the European Community are examined in depth. Ms. Sanson.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
255b. French Theater
(1)
Topic may vary each year.
       Topic for 2003/04: Twentieth-Century French Theater. This course is a study of contemporary French plays and theoretical texts on theater, combined with attendance at plays currently on the French stage. Sartre’s Huis Clos, as an example of existentialist and absurd theater, and Arthaud’s Théâtre et son double, are read and studied in depth. Three or four diverse plays are chosen from among those running during the current season to provide a panorama of contemporary trends in French theater. Students read and study plays, attend productions, and discuss and critique them through written work and exposés. Mr. Clément.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
256b. Enlightenment Literature
(1)
An introduction to the nature and spirit of the French Enlightenment through some of the major literary and philosophical works of the period. The course involves a historical presentation of the eighteenth century as well as a study of great individual works to which we still refer today in our thinking about art, science, politics, and love: Montesquieu’s Lettres persanes; Rousseau’s Discours; Diderot’s Rêve de d’Alembert and Paradoxe sur le Comédien; Voltaire’s polemical writings. Mr. Chartier.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
260a. Studies in French Cinema
(1)
Topic may vary each year.
       opic for 2003/04: The New Wave Directors and the Arts. From its inception, cinema has pursued its relationships with literature and the fine arts. In France between 1958 and 1964, a generation of film directors known as the French New Wave gives special attention to these relationships. Within this broader context, the course examines in detail the manner in which the New Wave directors develop a new cinematographic genre, the film essay. Directors include Alain Resnais, Jean-Luc Godard, Jean-Daniel Pollet, and Jacques Rivette. Authors include André Bazin, Suzanne Liandrat-Guigues, Jean-Louis Leutrat, Youssef Ishaghpour, and Pascal Borlitzer. Mr. Leutrat.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
261b. Nineteenth-Century French Sculpture
(1)
The course offers an introduction to French sculpture of the nineteenth century, beginning with the legacy of the eighteenth century, and tracing the evolution of sculpture from the Napoleonic Empire to the Republican era. The approach is chronological as well as stylistic and thematic. The course considers the genres of the commemorative monument and funerary statuary, and examines the issue of commercial reproductions. Three major figures of the period are emphasized: David d’Angers, Carpeaux, and Rodin. Authors include R. Wittkower, H. W. Janson, J. Hargrove, L. Benoist, and A. West. Mr. Jobert.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
262b. Special Topics
(1)
This course is taught by the resident director. Topic varies each year.
       Topic for 2003/04: Ethnic Paris. This course proposes a study of the immigrant communities in Paris and in the “proche banlieue” through the reading of literature and essays as well as visits to relevant places. We go to different neighborhoods (the “Shetl”, Montreuil, Saint-Denis, the tenth, thirteenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth districts, etc.), to related exhibitions, film festivals, and conferences. We learn about “associations” for the rights of immigrants and talk with advocates. Our goal is to gain an informed and original understanding of the history and current realities of post-colonial France. Ms. Célérier.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
263b. Power and Political Life in France and Europe
(1)
An analysis of the principal features of French and European political life, focusing upon institutions, major figures, and political agendas. Discussion centers on the nature of political power and specific consideration is given to the form and structure of European political regimes, the political stakes of the European construction, the power of interest groups, the reform of the welfare state, and the political treatment of minorities. Authors may include P. Bourdieu, P. Birnbaum, A. de Tocqueville, and M. Weber. Mr. Bollinger.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
264b. The French and “Modernity”
(1)
A study of French cultural practices, productions, and models in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The course follows the emergence of cultural “modernity” from the Revolution to the Republic and examines the gradual decline of religious and rural life, the challenges encountered by an academic and cultural elite, the cultural experiments of the avant-garde, and the democratization of culture through the rapid rise of consumerism and mass production. Major authors include Pierre Bourdieu, Roger Chartier, Michel Foucault, and Walter Benjamin. Ms. Kalifa.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
265a or b. Franco-African Relations
(1)
Beginning with a survey of precolonial kingdoms in Africa and the implantation of Islam, the course proceeds to an analysis of European intervention and of the structure of European colonial administration. Various phases of the African independence movement are highlighted: the formation of an African elite, the spread of African nationalisms, Panafricanism, and “Négritude.” Finally, we examine French policies in the post-colonial period and the U.S.’s emerging role in African affairs. Mr. Amégan.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
266a. Politics and Society
(1)
Topic may vary each year. Topic for 2003/04: France/USA - Two Competing Models? Throughout their shared history, relations between France and the United States have been characterized by a complex mixture of cooperation and rivalry, admiration and distrust. They are currently undergoing a difficult period, fueled by a mutual lack of understanding of the social and political features of the other. Using the comparative method pioneered by de Tocqueville, the course reviews the main features of French and American social and political systems, and examines the historical, cultural, economic, and institutional forces at work in their evolution. We consider how the different features of the two systems affect their interactions, and dispel some of the more common stereotypes and misapprehensions about the two countries. Readings are chosen from classical and contemporary scientific and journalistic texts, and lead to thematic examination of key areas of inquiry, including the nature of representative democracy and the role of the political parties in the two countries, their respective claims to constitute a universal model, the composition and importance of the state in France and America, and exploration of the central concepts of democracy, citizenship, immigration, race relations, and class distinction. Mr. Bollinger.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
267a, 268b. History of Art
(1)
This course focuses, each semester, on a different period in the history of French art, with special emphasis on the works of one or several of the major artists of the period, or of one school of art. Class visits to the Louvre, the Musée d’Orsay, the Orangerie, the Picasso Museum, or other museums containing works by artists under study are an integral part of the course.
       Topic may vary each year. Topic for 2003/04 267a: Metamorphosis of the Object. The course focuses attention on the transformations undergone by the object in the work of art. It explores the nature of the object in art and how it is defined by its different aspects. Art reflects, as Spengler said, a cultural physiognomy of society. Walter Benjamin denounces the mutations caused by mass reproduction ad infinitum of the object. Roland Barthes speaks about a mythology of everyday life within which objects acquire a new fetishistic character. Introducing the object into the field of art, Marcel Duchamp endowed the object with a specific idiosyncrasy. Through the transposition of the object the artist reformulates his relationship with the world and responds to civilization in crisis. The course studies several generations of artists with radically different ambitions for the artistic object. Ms. Kraguly.
       Topic may vary each year. Topic for 2003/04 268b: Art and the Body. The course compares and contrasts artistic representations of the body in the twentieth century through a series of investigations arranged by theme, and accompanied by trips to museums. Topics include the nude, the hirsute body, image and identity, and visualizations of the body. Museum visits include Le Musée Picasso, Le Musée du Louvre, Le Centre Georges Pompidou, Les Galeries du Marais, Le Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, and Le Jeu de Paume. Sample readings include: K. Clark, Le nu; N. Mirzoff, Bodyscape: Art, Modernity, and the Ideal Figure; M. Warbner, From the Beast to the Blonde; E. Grosz, Volatile Bodies; Rose Lee Goldberg, Performance Art; and J. Wolf, The Art of Gilbert and George. Ms. Kraguly.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
269b. Music and Culture
(1)
Topic may vary each year. Topic for 2003/04: Lyric Opera. The course retraces the history of opera in France through an appreciation of the lyric form in its musical and literary manifestations, and as a reflection of the cultural life of France in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Emphasis is given to the relation between the dramatic and musical arts, the collaboration between librettist and composer, and approaches to staging. Three operas are examined in detail: Rameau, Platée (1745); Mozart, Idoménée (1781); and Bizet, Carmen (1875). Students attend performances of these works at the Gamier and the Bastille opera houses. Visits to museums of music and opera are also arranged. Prerequisites: General background in music recommended. Mr. Memed.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
272a and b. Writing Workshop
(1/2)
This half-credit course is required of all students. Those attending the Vassar-Wesleyan Program for the full year take the workshop during the first semester only. The course prepares students to write papers for their classes. It covers common problems encountered in writing French and introduces students to the organization and style of written assignments in France. Students meet individually with a tutor once a week for an additional half-hour.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
273a, 274b. Special Topics: University of Paris
(1)
Students in the Paris Program have the opportunity to enroll in French university courses under the supervision of the resident director and receive Vassar credit.

Courses are subject to change. For information, please consult the department and its website.

 
275b. Internship Internship
(2)
Internship in a French governmental, civic or volunteer organization through cooperation with the Internships in Francophone Europe program. Special application procedure.