Anthropology Department

Professors: Colleen Ballerino Cohen (Chair), Judith L. Goldstein b, Lucy Lewis Johnson, Martha Kaplan abAssociate Professor: Anne Pike-Tay; Assistant Professor: Thomas Porcello.

The field of anthropology seeks to promote a holistic understanding of social life by offering complex accounts of human histories, societies and cultures. Anthropologists undertake ethnographic, archival, and archaeological research on the varied aspects of individual and collective experience in all time periods and parts of the world. The Department of Anthropology offers a wide range of options for majors and for nonmajors in recognition of the broad interdisciplinary nature of the field. Nonmajors from all classes may choose courses at any level with permission of the instructor and without introductory anthropology as a prerequisite.

Requirements for Concentration: 12 units including Anthropology 140, 201, 301, and two additional 300-level seminars. It is required that students take Anthropology 201 by the end of their junior year and highly recommended that they take it in their sophomore year. Anthropology 140 is a prerequisite or co-requisite for Anthropology 201. Students are required to take courses in at least three of the four fields of anthropology; those being archaeology, biological anthropology, cultural anthropology, and linguistics. Students are also required to achieve familiarity with the peoples and cultures of at least two areas of the world. This requirement can be met by taking any two courses in the range from Anthropology 235-244 or other courses by petition. The remaining courses are to be chosen from among the departmental offerings in consultation with the adviser, in order to give the student both a strong focus within anthropology and an overall understanding of the field. With the consent of the adviser, students may petition the department to take up to 2 of the 12 required units in courses outside the department which are related to their focus. Once a course plan has been devised, it must be approved by the department faculty.

NRO: One introductory course taken NRO may count towards the major if a letter grade is received. If a student receives a PA for an introductory course taken under the NRO option, that student must complete 13 courses for an anthropology major. No other required courses for the major may be taken NRO.

Requirements for a Correlate Sequence: 6 units to include 1 unit at the 100-level and 2 units at the 300-level. Courses should be chosen in consultation with an anthropology department adviser in order to a) complement the student’s major and b) form a coherent focus within anthropology. Possible concentrations include cultural studies, field work, evolution, archaeology, language. One introductory course taken NRO may count towards the correlate sequence if a letter grade is received. If a student receives a PA for an introductory course taken under the NRO option, that student must complete seven courses for an anthropology correlate sequence. No other required courses for the correlate sequence may be taken NRO.

Recommendations: The field experience is essential to the discipline of anthropology. Therefore, majors are urged to take at least one fieldwork course, to engage in field research during the summer, and/or to undertake independent fieldwork under a study away program.

Anthropological Research Experience: The department also offers students the opportunity for independent fieldwork/research projects through several of its courses and in conjunction with on-going faculty research projects. Opportunities for laboratory research, which is also critical to anthropological inquiry, are available in our archaeology, biological anthropology, sound analysis, and digital video editing labs.

Advisers: The department.


I. Introductory

 
100a. Archaeology
(1)
Archaeologists study the material evidence of past human cultures. In this course students learn how archaeologists dig up physical remains, tools, and houses and use these data to reconstruct and understand past cultures. The methods and theory behind archaeological recovery, problem solving and interpretation are learned through the use of selected site reports, articles from all over the world, and hands on experimentation. Ms. Pike-Tay.
 
120b. Human Origins
(1)
This course introduces current and historical debates in the study of human evolution. Primate studies, genetics, the fossil record and paleoecology are drawn upon to address such issues as the origins of nature of human cognition, sexuality, and population variation. The department.
 
140a or b. Cultural Anthropology
(1)
An introduction to central concepts, methods, and findings in cultural anthropology, including culture, cultural difference, the interpretation of culture, and participant-observation. The course uses cross-cultural comparison to question scholarly and commonsense understandings of human nature. Topics may include sexuality, kinship, political and economic systems, myth, ritual and cosmology, and culturally varied ways of constructing race, gender, and ethnicity. Students undertake small research projects and explore different styles of ethnographic writing. The department.
 
150a or b. Linguistics and Anthropology
(1)
This course provides the student with a practical introduction to structuralist methods of linguistic analysis. There is a focus on both theoretical discussions about, and practical exercises in, the phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics of natural human languages. Additional topics include: the acquisition of linguistic and communicative competence; the relationship between human language and other animal communication systems; and cultural and social dimensions of language variation (including the study of regional and social dialects, code switching and mixing, speaking styles, registers, and idiolects). The course is intended both as the College’s general introduction to formal linguistics and as a foundation for more advanced courses in related areas. Mr. Porcello.
 
170b. Topics in Anthropology
(1)
This course provides the student with an introduction to anthropology through a focus on a particular issue or aspect of human experience. Topics vary, but may include Anthropology through Film, American Popular Culture, Extinctions, Peoples of the World. The Department.
       Open only to freshmen. Satisfies requirement for a Freshmen Course.
       Topic for 2003/04b: Extinctions: Causes and Culprits. Australia, New Guinea, and the Americas were full of very large mammals during the last Ice Age. In the Americas, camels, giant sloths, mammoths and mastodons became extinct between roughly 17,000 to 12,000 years ago. Greater Australia’s giant marsupials and giant flightless birds disappeared even earlier. Many researchers see environmental change as the cause of these extinctions while just as many attribute primary cause to early human “big game’ hunters. This class reviews the historic and current debates weighing the roles of human, ecological and environmental causes and culprits of the extinctions of Pleistocene megafauna as well as of many more recent species. Ms. Pike-Tay.
 

II. Intermediate

 
201b. Anthropological Theory
(1)
In this course we explore the history of intellectual innovations that make anthropology distinctive among the social sciences. We seek to achieve an analytic perspective on the history of the discipline and also to consider the social and political contexts, and consequences, of anthropology’s theory. While the course is historical and chronological in organization, we read major theoretical and ethnographic works that form the background to debates and issues in contemporary anthropology. The department.
       Prerequisite or Co-requisite: Anthropology 140.
 
212. World Musics
(1)
(Same as Music 212)
 
231a or b. Topics in Archaeology
(1)
An examination of topics of interest in current archaeological analysis. We examine the anthropological reasons for such analyses, how analysis proceeds, what has been discovered to date through such analyses, and what the future of the topic seems to be. Possible topics include tools and human behavior, lithic technology, the archaeology of death, prehistoric settlement systems, origins of material culture.
       May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.
       Topic for 2003/04a: Politics of the Past: Archaeological Ethics and the Law. Who owns the past? What rights, moral and legal, do the public, special interest groups, or descendant communities have to the sites that archaeologists excavate? What obligations and responsibilities, in turn, do archaeologists have toward these sites and toward these multiple publics? Legislation of recent decades has challenged and changed how anthropologists and archaeologists approach the study of the past. This course focuses on these challenges and changes, examining archaeology as a public interest.Topics covered in this course include: the divide between professional and popular views of archaeology; the forms and consequences of a Eurocentrically constructed "heritage"; protective archaeological legislation on the local, state, and federal levels; NAGPRA, repatriation and native-museum relations; looting, collecting, the art market, and the destruction of world heritage; the archaeological record as a "non-renewable resource"; museums, galleries, and collectors as agents of cultural imperialism.
       Tow 75-minute periods.
 
[232a. Topics in Biological Anthropology]
(1)
This course covers topics within the broad field of biological (or physical) anthropology ranging from evolutionary theory to the human fossil record to the identification of human skeletal remains from crime scenes and accidents. Bioanthropology conceptualizes cultural behavior as an integral part of our behavior as a species. Topics covered in this course may include human evolution, primate behavior, population genetics, human demography and variation, or forensic anthropology.
       May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.
       Prerequisite: Prior coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Not offered in 2003/.04.
 
235b. Area Studies in Prehistory
(1)
This course is a detailed, intensive investigation of archaeological remains from a particular geographic region of the world. The area investigated varies from year to year and includes such areas as Eurasia, North America, and the native civilizations of Central and South America.
       May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.
       Prerequisites: Prior coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Topic for 2003/04: Prehistoric Eurasia. Using the theories and methods of anthropological archaeology this course reviews the major themes of research in the prehistory of Europe and the Near East, with selected coverage of the Paleolithic Far East and Australia. It outlines the evolution of human ancestors, their eventual colonization of northern regions, and the biological and cultural theories regarding the Neanderthals. It critically examines the significance of the coincident appearance of anatomically modern humans with the emergence of art, ritual, and language. It presents evidence for highly complex hunter-gatherer social systems across Eurasia, followed by the expansion of economies based on domesticated plants and animals. Subsistence economy, trade, settlement strategies, technology, social organization and symbolic behavior are emphasized throughout the course. Ms. Pike-Tay.
 
240a or b. Cultural Localities
(1)
Detailed study of the cultures of people living in a particular area of the world, including their politics, economy, world view, religion, expressive practices, and historical transformations. Included is a critical assessment of different approaches to the study of culture. Areas covered vary from year to year and may include Europe, Africa, North America, and India. The Department.
       May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Two 75-minute periods.
       Topic for 2003/04 a: (Same as Latin American Studies 240) Mesoamerican Worlds: States, Colonial, and Postcolonial Domains. An intensive survey of the ethnohistory and ethnography of several cultural and linguistic communities with a long history of sociocultural interactions, which have held and continue to hold a territorial base in Central Mexico, Yucatan, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. This course introduces a selection of historical and religious texts written in Nahuatl and several Maya languages, and focuses on the ethnography of three major linguistic groups: Mayas, Nahuas, and Zapotecs. After an examination of Mesoamerican cultural, political, and linguistic practices-such as urbanization, socio-religious hierarchies, writing and calendrical systems, and warfare in the Classic and Postclassic periods-the course focuses on Mesoamerican responses to Spanish conquerors, and on the adaptation and transformations within Mesoamerican communities resulting from their interaction with an evolving colonial order. The course also investigates the relations between native communities in the region and modern nation-states-particularly Mexico and Guatemala-and examines a range of current issues in the anthropological study of Nahua, Maya, and Zapotec societies-such as the representation of indigenous identities in the national and global spheres, immigration and the creation of transnational networks, and legal projects that address the issue of indigenous autonomy in the aftermath of the EZLN rebellion and the Guatemalan peace accords.
       Topic for 2003/04b: New World Historical Archaeology. This course serves as an introduction to the field of historical archaeology and gives an overview of the kinds of archaeological evidence used to reconstruct life in the Americas in the Colonial and Post-colonial periods. Topics covered are the intellectual history and development of historical archaeology as a sub-field of archaeology; the dominant theoretical perspectives that have defined and guided the discipline; earliest contact and settlement; the archaeology of groups; consumer behavior; historical archaeology in global perspective; and historical gardens and landscape. Students become familiar with the processes of colonization, creolization, ethnogenesis, and cultural development through the material remains found at American colonial and post-colonial sites.
 
[241b. The Caribbean]
(1)
An overview of the cultures of the Caribbean, tracing the impact of slavery and colonialism on contemporary experiences and expressions of Caribbean identity. Using ethnographies, historical accounts, literature, music, and film, the course explores the multiple meanings of ‘Caribbean,’ as described in historical travel accounts and contemporary tourist brochures, as experienced in daily social, political, and economic life, and as expressed through cultural events such as calypso contests and Festival and cultural-political movements such as rastafarianism. Although the course deals primarily with the English-speaking Caribbean, it also includes materials on the French and Spanish speaking Caribbean and on diasporic Caribbean communities in the U.S. and U.K. Ms. Cohen.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Alternate years: Not offered in 2003/04.
 
242b. The Frozen North
(1)
Characterized by extreme cold, a dearth of plants, and rich fauna on the land and in the seas, the polar and sub-polar regions called forth unique biological and cultural adaptations from their human inhabitants. This course concentrates on peoples of the far north, looking at the myriad adjustments in technology, material culture, social structure, and ideology necessary to survive and thrive in this extreme environment. It also examines the northern people’s interactions with the Europeans who invaded the area over the past millennium. Ms. Johnson.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
 
[243a. The Pacific]
(1)
An introduction to the cultures and histories of peoples of the Pacific, and to important anthropological issues that have resulted from research in the Pacific. Using historical and ethnographic documents and films, the course explores the variety of Pacific societies, from the chiefly kingdoms of Polynesia to the egalitarian societies of Papua New Guinea with some attention as well to Asian labor-diaspora communities in Hawaii and Fiji. The course analyzes the European cultural fascination with the “exotic” Pacific as well as Pacific islanders’ own visions and versions of their history and goals in the encounter with European colonialism and Christianity, and in the post-colonial present. Ms. Kaplan.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Alternate years: Not offered in 2003/04.
 
[245b. The Ethnographer’s Craft]
(1)
(Same as Urban Studies 245) This course introduces students to the methods employed in constructing and analyzing ethnographic materials by combining readings, classroom lectures, and discussions with regular field exercises. Students gain experience in participant-observation, fieldnote-taking, interviewing, survey sampling, domain analysis, symbolic analysis, quantitative analysis, the use of archival documents and contemporary media in ethnographic work, and how to formulate field problems. Attention is also given to current concerns with interpretation and modes of representation. The department.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
247a. Modern Social Theory: Marx, Durkheim, and Weber
(1)
(Same as Sociology 247a)
 
250. Language, Culture, and Society
(1)
This course draws on a wide range of theoretical perspectives in exploring a particular problem, emphasizing the contribution of linguistics and linguistic anthropology to issues that bear on research in a number of disciplines. At issue in each selected course topic are the complex ways in which cultures, societies, and individuals are interrelated in the act of using language within and across particular speech communities. The department.
       May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Topic to be announced.
 
255 Language and Gender
(1)
This course focuses on language as a cultural means of communication. Gender is approached both as a grammatical category and as a social category of person linked to different kinds of language use. The course explores the way in which language use and ideologies about language use both inform and are informed by gender. The investigation of language and gender and of gender-related social movements are explored from a cross-cultural perspective. The department.
 
259a. Soundscapes: Anthropology of Music
(1)
(Same as Music 259) This course investigates a series of questions about the relationship between music and the individuals and societies that perform and listen to it. In other words, music is examined and appreciated as a form of human expression existing within and across specific cultural contexts. How does music create and express social identity, value, and difference? How is music used to include or exclude individuals from group membership? How is group solidarity-stylistic, ethnic, nationalistic-linked to patterns of musical production and consumption? How do we make sense of our lives through making and listening to music? Where do musicians draw their creativity from? How do we listen? Why do we perform? The course takes an interdisciplinary approach to the social life of music, addressing historical themes and debates within multiple academic fields (anthropology, ethnomusicology, sociology, linguistics, philosophical aesthetics, cultural and media studies) via readings, recordings, and films. Mr. Porcello.
       Prerequisites: Prior coursework in Anthropology or Music, or by permission of instructor.
 
[260. Current Themes in Anthropological Theory and Method]
(1)
The focus is upon particular cultural sub-systems and their study in cross-cultural perspective. The sub-system selected varies from year to year. Examples include: kinship systems, political organizations, religious beliefs and practices, verbal and nonverbal communication. The department.
       May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Topic to be announced.
 
261. Culture, Power, History
(1)
This course examines the turn to historical questions in current anthropology. What are the implications of cultural difference for an understanding of history, and of history for an understanding of culture? Recent works which propose new ways of thinking about western and non-western peoples and the power to make history are read. Theoretical positions include structure and history, world system, hegemony and resistance, globalization theory, and discourse approaches. Historical/ethnographic situations range from New Guinea cargo cults to the English industrial revolution, from the history of sugar as a commodity to the colonizing of Egypt, from debates about the sexuality of women and Hindu gods in Fiji to the role of spirit mediums in the struggle for Zimbabwe. The department.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
 
[262a. Anthropological Approaches to Myth, Ritual and Symbol]
(1)
What is the place of myth, ritual and symbol in human social life? Do symbols reflect reality, or create it? This course considers answers to these questions in social theory (Marx, Freud and Durkheim) and in major anthropological approaches (functionalism, structuralism, and symbolic anthropology). It then reviews current debates in interpretive anthropology about order and change, power and resistance, and the role of ritual in the making of history. Ethnographic studies include Fiji, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, sixteenth century Italy, the Seneca, and the U.S. The department.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Alternate years: Not offered in 2003/04.
 
263a. Anthropology Goes to the Movies: Film, Video, and Ethnography
(1)
This course examines how film and video are used in ethnography as tools for study and as means of ethnographic documentary and representation. Topics covered include history and theory of visual anthropology, issues of representation and audience, indigenous film, and contemporary ethnographic approaches to popular media. Ms. Cohen.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or Film or by permission of instructor.
       Two 75-minute class periods, plus 3-hour preview lab.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
[264b. Anthropology of Art]
(1)
This course develops a cultural framework for the investigation of artistic expression drawing upon anthropological approaches, semiotics and aesthetics to examine art and culture. Topics such as the origins of art and symbolic expression in human prehistory; Western representations of non-Western art; connoisseurship; the market economy; and the categories of “fine art,” “tourist art,” and “graffiti art” are addressed. Ms. Pike-Tay.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
284a. Early African America
(1)
(same as Africanca Studies 284) This course serves as an introduction to the archaeology of early African-American sites and as an overview of the material evidence for life as an African in America, both enslaved and free. Topics covered include the history and development of African-American archaeology as a concentration of historical archaeology from the Civil Rights Movement to the present; its definitions and theoretical perspectives through time; the material remains of living conditions, status differences, dominance and resistance, and cultural expression; and power relations. Students gain a familiarity with the history of American slavery and the Triangle Trade, and with the archaeological manifestations of cultural contact, change, and exchange-in short, of the creation of an African-American culture; separate both from its African roots and American surroundings. Mrs. Chan
       Prerequisite: prior coursework in Anthropology or permission of the instructor
       Two 75-minute periods.
 
290a or b. Field Work
(1/2 or 1)
Individual or group field projects or internships. May be elected during the college year or during the summer. Open to all students. The department.
 
297a or b. Reading Course in Archaeological Field Methods
(1/2)
Ms. Johnson.
 
298a or b. Independent Work
(1/2 or 1)
Individual or group project of reading or research. May be elected during the college year or during the summer. The department.
 

III. Advanced

 
300a or b. Senior Thesis
(1)
The department.
 
301a. Senior Seminar
(1)
A close examination of current theory in anthropology, oriented around a topic of general interest, such as history and anthropology, the writing of ethnography, or the theory of practice. Students write a substantial paper applying one or more of the theories discussed in class. Readings change from year to year. Ms. Goldstein.
 
305b. Topics in Advanced Biological Anthropology
(1)
An examination of such topics as primate structure and behavior, the Plio-Pleistocene hominids, the final evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens, forensic anthropology, and human biological diversity.
       May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.
       Prerequisite: Anthropology 232 or by permission of the instructor.
       Topic for 2003/04: Debates in Human Evolution. This course provides in-depth survey of over one hundred years of debate surrounding the designation and nature of human ancestors; the Australopithecines, Homo erectus, Archaic Homo sapiens including the Neandertals, and the earliest anatomically modern humans. Current debates draw upon genetic as well as fossil evidence. Ms. Pike-Tay.
 
331. Seminar in Archaeological Method and Theory
(1)
The theoretical underpinnings of anthropological archaeology and the use of theory in studying particular bodies of data. The focus ranges from examination of published data covering topics such as architecture and society, the origin of complex society, the relationship between technology and ecology to more laboratory-oriented examination of such topics as archaeometry, archaeozoology, or lithic technology.
       Prerequisites: 200-level work in archaeology or by permission of instructor.
       May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.
       Topic for 2003/04b: Post Modern Perspectives. This seminar explores various aspects of contemporary theory in archaeology while surveying the developments of archaeological method, theory and practice in the 20th century. The course focuses in particular on the post-modernist critiques of the discipline that have arisen in the last twenty years. We look at material that is often new and controversial because it challenges the status quo and more recent developments. By engaging in constructive criticism of the readings, students develop and refine their own perspectives. The course culminates in a round-robin review and critique of research proposals developed over the semester by seminar participants.
 
350b. Language and Expressive Culture
(1)
This seminar provides the advanced student with an intensive investigation of theoretical and practical problems in specific areas of research that relate language and linguistics to expressive activity. Although emphasizing linguistic modes of analysis and argumentation, the course is situated at the intersection of important intellectual crosscurrents in the arts, humanities, and social sciences that focus on how culture is produced and projected through not only verbal, but also musical, material, kinaesthetic, and dramatic arts. Each topic culminates in independent research projects.
       May be repeated for credit if the topic has changed.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in linguistics or by permission of instructor.
       Topic for 2003/04: Media(tized) Language. (Same as Media Studies Development 350) This course utilizes approaches drawn from psycholinguistics, semiotics, and critical discourse analysis to examine a series of issues linking linguistic form and practice to both digital and mass media. The course begins by contrasting semiotic and discursive analyses of television, print, and web-based advertising, with a particular emphasis on their linguistic structuring. The second section of the course utilizes critical discourse analysis to examine fact-based media content (e.g., news, eyewitness accounts) from print, television, and the Internet as forms of narrative and rhetoric deeply implicated in constructing the events they purport to describe. A final section of the course sustains a focus on linguistic issues attendant to digital media. Issues investigated include the metaphors used to organize web structures; linguistic analysis of email and chat as forms intermediate to speech and writing; the web’s effects on language-leveling; how language revitalization movements utilize digital media; and the web’s relation to English as the world’s de facto lingua franca. Mr. Porcello.
 
360. Problems in Cultural Analysis
(1)
Covers a variety of current issues in modern anthropology in terms of ongoing discussion among scholars of diverse opinions rather than a rigid body of fact and theory. The department.
       May be repeated for credit if topic has changed.
       Prerequisites: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Topic to be announced.
 
[361b. Consumer Culture]
(1)
An examination of classic and recent work on the culture of consumption. Among the topics we study are gender and consumption, the creation of value, commodity fetishism, the history of the department store, and the effect of Western goods on non-Western societies. Ms. Goldstein.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
[362b. Male and Female in Anthropological Perspective]
(1)
The course begins with an overview of the position of men and women according to recent anthropological theory, and in so doing examines how including women affects mainstream anthropological theory. The course compares the classification of sex differences and images of men and women with their social roles. Representations of women in popular culture are studied. The department.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
[363a. Nations, Globalization, and Post-Coloniality]
(1)
(Same as International Studies 363) How do conditions of globalization and dilemmas of post-coloniality challenge the nation-state? Do they also reinforce and reinvent it? This course engages three related topics and literatures; recent anthropology of the nation-state; the anthropology of colonial and post-colonial societies; and the anthropology of global institutions and global flows. Ms. Kaplan.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
       Not offered in 2003/04.
 
364a. Tourism
(1)
Recreational travel to distant places to experience other cultures is becoming big business as tourism achieves the status of one of the leading growth industries world-wide. This course explores this trend, emphasizing the history of tourism, the role played by and the impact of tourism in the process of development, the relationship between tourism and constructions of national and cultural identities and negotiations for power, and the concept “tourist” as it applies to the experience of recreational travelers and ethnographic study and representation alike. Students use ethnographic case studies, novels, essays, historical travel journals, travel brochures, advertisements, and personal narratives, to prepare in-depth analyses and accounts of tourism. Ms. Cohen.
       Prerequisite: Previous coursework in Anthropology or by permission of instructor.
 
399a or b. Senior Independent Work
(1/2 or 1)
Individual or group project of reading or research. May be elected during the college year or during the summer. The department.